What is deductive and inductive reasoning? Explanation with examples

Let us say that a person goes to a market. There he observes different fruits. From his observation, he develops the idea that all oranges that he sees are fruits. Then he observes more and draws the idea that all fruits have seeds. So this man has made two observations i.e. oranges are fruits, and all fruits have seeds. Now from these two observations, he forms the concluding idea that all oranges must have seeds.

We can clearly see that this person has used some sort of logic or reasoning. Such reasoning is often used by humans in their daily lives.

However, using logic or reasoning in offices, universities, scientific work, etc. is essential. There you are faced with many issues which you have to handle logically to reach efficient results or conclusions. It is not your academic life where you can simply buy dissertation to solve your problems. You need to use your own analytical skills.

While dealing with analytical problems, we often use two types of reasoning. These include inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning. The above-mentioned example of reasoning is a deductive reasoning example.

What is deductive reasoning?

Deductive reasoning is sometimes known as top-down reasoning or deductive logic. The mental process of making deductive inferences is known as deductive reasoning. This can be considered a general deductive reasoning definition. The result of a deductive inference flows logically from the premises, i.e. it is impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion to be wrong.

Definitions and examples of deductive reasoning?

How can we basically define deductive reasoning? Let us dive in this entire concept in a bit more depth.

Deductive reasoning definition

Well, deductive reasoning is a logical process that leads from broad concepts to specific conclusions.

What steps are involved in deductive reasoning?

You start with pondering over an idea. You will then make an argument for this given idea in deductive reasoning. And then you will try to reach a conclusion regarding your argument. You will try to see whether your argument is right or wrong.

But on what grounds do we make our arguments or assumptions? We now know that deductive reasoning involves beginning with a broad well-established idea or theory. So by combining several premises, you can draw an inference or reach a conclusion.

What do we mean by a premise?

A premise is a statement that establishes the foundation for a theory or general idea. It is a widely recognized idea, fact, or rule. Conclusions are statements that are backed up by evidence.

How to draw conclusions using a premise?

In a simple deductive logic argument, you’ll typically start with one premise and then add another. Of course, you need to compare two ideas to make any statement. Then, based on these two premises, you draw a conclusion. This is known as the premise-premise-conclusion format.

Deductive reasoning example

The example given at the start of this blog was a general one. Now we will look at an example keeping the idea of the premise in mind.

Premise: Mammals are warm-blooded vertebrates.

Premise: Human beings are also warm-blooded and have backbones.

Conclusion: Therefore, human beings are mammals.
Here, we started from a broad concept and reached a specific conclusion.

Validity and soundness of deductive reasoning

Valid deductive arguments:

Sometimes, in an argument, two totally made-up premises are used. And consequently, a conclusion is drawn. The argument in such cases seems valid, because the premises, though made-up, logically support one another. E.g.:


Premise: train stations will be blocked when it’ll rain.

Premise: it is raining right now.

Conclusion: hence, the train station is blocked right now.

Here, the conclusion cannot be true for sure, but the argument is valid.

Invalid deductive arguments:

Other times, your reasoning is invalid because the premises you used do not follow a logically right pattern, although they might be true. The resulting conclusion can be true or false. E.g.:

Premise: Reptiles have a tail (Motani, R., 2009).

Premise: My neighbor’s pet has a tail.

Conclusion: So it is a reptile.


Here, the conclusion might be true; it might be false as well. But the argument is definitely not right or logical.

Soundness in deductive reasoning

If both the premises are true, and the relation between them is logical too, then the argument is sound. Of course, the conclusion will definitely be true in such cases.

Deductive reasoning vs. inductive reasoning?

Inductive and deductive reasoning, both are used to make observations or draw conclusions. But inductive reasoning, on the other hand, starts with specific observations and leads to broad conclusions.

In deductive reasoning, you make use of the already established theories. Like in the example given above, we know that mammals are warm-blooded vertebrates is a well-established theory. Based on such established theories, you form a hypothesis and then draw a conclusion.

But in inductive reasoning, you instead try to make theories based on the observations. Hence, inductive reasoning might be considered an explanatory method.

Benefits of deductive reasoning

Being able to use deductive reasoning in daily life’s decisions has its own benefits. You are able to reach possibly the right conclusions in a logical manner.

Being analytically good is essential for anyone. Even celebrities are not stupid. They too are well-educated. Celebrities went to Harvard to complete their higher education even when it is not directly linked to their profession. Then why should common people not incorporate this fruitful practice into their daily lives too?

However, this concept of deductive reasoning is particularly more useful in the job sector. Many job sectors involve deductive reasoning test as part of their employee recruitment procedure. Even when it is not overtly used in the testing, nonetheless, you have to make many decisions in your work based on reasoning.

Being good at deductive reasoning is hence valued by employers. You can also try to show that you are good at deductive reasoning through your resume. You can write about critical tasks that you undertook which reflected your deductive reasoning abilities. This can surely give you an edge in your job application, especially if it is for a managerial post.

If you don’t have prior job experience, you can relate achievements. For instance, how you were able to logically come up with digital marketing dissertation topics, etc.

Many people know that they will be evaluated through a deductive reasoning test. And hence, they prepare for it.

Deductive reasoning tests

Here’s a brief guideline about how you might be evaluated through a deductive reasoning test. Any candidate giving such a test is provided with various pieces of information. And you have to drive the right logical conclusion from that information. In simple words, your ability to make the right decisions is judged. To check the candidate’s deductive reasoning skills, employers use different platforms. Two of these are mentioned below:

SHL verify ability test

SHL is a corporation that creates psychometric tests to assess prospective employees’ diagrammatic, numerical, and verbal reasoning abilities.

These tests are around 25 minutes long. A range of somewhat varied question styles is used in the format. The first will be entirely verbal. The premises in this section are a series of statements. The second will be based on images. The premises might be a little more abstract or numerical. The next step in the test is to recognize the premises in a block of text. Your response is then judged for your abilities.

Kenexa ability tests

Another similar concept is that of Kenexa ability test. Kenexa assessments are a collection of online pre-employment psychometric aptitude tests designed to find new talent and evaluate who is the greatest fit for the job. Kenexa offers aptitude tests that evaluate a candidate’s cognitive, personality, and behavioral abilities. Kenexa looks at logical, numerical, and linguistic reasoning as cognitive criteria.

It usually has 20 questions that have to be answered in around 20 minutes. These consist of statements in which logic has to be used to draw the right conclusions.

The use of deductive reasoning in research

Scientific research often includes the use of deductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning in research is used in both academic and non-academic fields. The most common use of deductive reasoning is in the area of quantitative research.

Researchers often make use of hypothetico-deductive method. First, they form a hypothesis. And then they use this method to check whether their hypothesis is right according to the real-world data or not.

Deductive reasoning in research is carried out through some specific steps. These steps can be outlined as written below:

  • checkedCreate a problem statement for a research problem.
  • checkedCreate a testable hypothesis.
  • checkedCollect data using relevant methods.
  • checkedExamine and test your information.
  • checkedDetermine whether your null hypothesis should be rejected.

In this way, deductive reasoning is of great help to researchers all around the world.


  1. thesiswritinghelp.com.pk. (n.d.). Top-Notch Dissertation Writing Services By Expert Writers. [online] Available at: https://thesiswritinghelp.com.pk/dissertation-writing-service [Accessed 11 May 2022].
  2. Motani, R., 2009. The evolution of marine reptiles. Evolution: Education and Outreach2(2), pp.224-235.
  3. professionalessayservice.co.uk. (2021). Top Ten Hollywood Celebrities Who Went To Harvard – Professional Essay Service. [online] Available at: https://www.professionalessayservice.co.uk/top-ten-hollywood-celebrities-who-went-to-harvard/.
  4. Best Assignment Writer. (n.d.). The best 5 easy steps for an MBA dissertation – Best Assignment Writers. [online] Available at: https://bestassignmentwriter.co.uk/blog/5-easy-steps-for-a-perfect-mba-dissertation/ [Accessed 11 May 2022].
Read more

How to Write a Thesis Statement with Examples


If defined simply, the thesis statement is a phrase, generally at the end of the introductory segment of the paper, affirming the main idea or major goals of the paper (Peterlin, 2008). Thesis statement is one of the foremost things that you readers will read. Your thesis statement might be the hardest to write, but it is one of the most important parts of your entire thesis. If you want your thesis statement to be strong, it should clearly and precisely state the primary idea you want to get across.

However, everything that will come along in your thesis afterward will reflect this statement. Nevertheless, it was just the introduction to what we will reflect on in this article. What is a thesis statement? What is the best way to write a strong and effective thesis statement with its examples and the main components of an excellent thesis statement?

What Is A Thesis Statement?

The simplest way to define thesis statement is, it is just a few precise sentences that reflect the main idea of your entire paper. And answers all the questions that are present in your paper. The primary goal of a thesis statement is to provide readers with a quick and easy-to-follow road map that they will be following to connect the points of your thesis. It is the summary of your paper about what you will discuss with them.

Furthermore, another purpose of the thesis statement is to state the problem. The statement of a problem is a report of existing problem/ issue which needs proper actions to recover the condition (dissertationwritinghelp, 2021).

For instance, when you are writing your paper, you will want to look at the other article on the relevant topic to take the idea of thesis statement structure or to take pieces of evidence that will be backing your paper.

Why Is A Thesis Statement Important?

Two main reasons help you understand how important the thesis statement for essay is.

1st Reason: the writer first constructs a thesis to focus on an essay’s primary concept. To produce a clear idea for the paper, the writer must be able to inscribe the key topic in a few phrases. The thesis directs not only the reader but also the writer. The thesis statement serves as a roadmap for the writer to follow to keep their paper organized.

2nd Reason: A well-crafted thesis statement structure helps the reader comprehend the essay’s major point. The thesis statement equips the reader with what is to come in the essay’s body. The thesis statement usually holds a position at the end of the introductory paragraph. It is followed by the main body paragraph, which contains evidence and ideas to support the thesis. The thesis statement is significant since it informs the reader about what they will be reading next.

Any writer needs to understand the importance of a thesis statement because a good thesis statement possesses a strong place in any essay or paper. To keep it simple, the thesis statement should support three basic questions:

One needs to be mindful of the above points when writing a thesis statement because your whole paper will be circulating the thesis statement.

Examples Of Thesis Statement

Here are some thesis statement examples which will help you distinguish between a strong and a weak one.

First Example:

Bad: Everyone should exercise.
– Why should I? What’s in it for me?
Good: young people should add exercise to their daily morning routine because it keeps their bodies at a muscle active, helps maintain weight, and reduces the risk of high blood pressure.

– Here, solid and logical reasons support your statements, i.e., young people (not everyone), the morning routine (not the evening), weight upkeep, and high blood pressure deterrence. Your research becomes easier when you have very specific objectives.

Second Example:

Bad: Excessive alcohol drinking is harmful to your health. – This is far too general. What are the specific negative consequences of alcohol intake that you’d like to talk about?
Good: Excessive alcohol intake has negative health consequences, including weight gain, heart disease, and liver issues.

– You’ll notice that we were extremely precise in our reasons for doing so. You don’t have to express every disadvantage you’re going to layout in your thesis statement (in fact, you shouldn’t because it risks becoming a run-on sentence), but you can highlight the primary areas you’ll look at.

Third Example:

Bad: Reading can help a child’s analytical thinking develop.
– Words like “can” are insufficient. How does this thesis statement elicit a response? Make sure you can convincingly argue every claim you make if you plan to write numerous paragraphs (or pages) about a topic.

Good: Reading is beneficial to a child’s mental development since it fosters cognitive abilities, expands vocabulary, and introduces them to other worlds they might not otherwise discover.

We haven’t just claimed that reading is beneficial; we have presented a sample of all the advantages we will discuss in our work.

These examples should explain why one should not just make a statement without any supportive benefits or clauses—providing the benefits and key points to any who, what, and why helps keep your information specific.

What Makes A Good Thesis Statement?

The best thesis statements are compact, combative, and consistent.


One should define thesis statement as concise and to the point; don’t use more words than are essential. In one or two lines, state your idea simply and directly.


Your thesis should not be a undeveloped factual statement that everyone is aware of. A good thesis statement is supported by additional evidence or research.

Your thesis statement, especially in an argumentative essay, should be something that others (or at least some) might question or disagree with.


Your thesis statement may touch on various areas of your subject, but they should all come together to form a whole unified meaning of thesis statement that expresses one core point.

The rest of your paper must support and explain everything specified in your thesis statement.

How To Write A Thesis Statement For Argumentative And Expository Essays With Examples

Some of the most prevalent academic papers are expository and argumentative essays. They rely on their thesis statements to summarize what’s presented because they don’t have a formal abstract like research papers.

Whether you create your thesis statement or opt for a bachelor’s or master thesis writing service, the thesis statements for argumentative and expository essays should be powerful and decisive; they should not be unclear or wishy-washy. In the introduction, you should take a stand right away so that your readers understand what your work is seeking to illustrate.

Expository Thesis Statement    

An Expository thesis statement is an essay that exposes a topic to the reader. It provides the reader with the necessary descriptions, details, and explanations on that particular topic. The expository thesis statement should explain to the reader what they will learn in your essay.

Some examples of Expository Thesis statements are:

  • Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) upsurges the risk of stroke and arterial fibrillation (irregular heartbeat).
  • 12% of people have a tendency to to dream in black and white. What’s stranger is that human beings used to dream in black and white even more before color tv.
  • Human actions, particularly greenhouse gas emissions, are considered the dominant cause of temperature increment.

Expository statements define existing facts about a particular topic and explain it further, leaving a space for reader to contribute with information and details. Here you will not need to make an argument or provide any evidence support. The only thing you need to do is understand the topic and present it logically.

Argumentative Thesis Statement

If you need to make a statement defending one side of any controversial issue, you will need to write an argumentative essay. Your thesis statement should communicate your point of view and may provide a preview or suggestion of your proof to the reader.

Some examples of an argumentative thesis statement are:

  • The benefits somehow outweigh the downsides of internet usage it provides for education.
  • The lack of time due to employment needs makes students opt for bachelor thesis writing service, which drags it out of the context of illegality.
  • Rehabilitation programs for people serving life sentences should be subsidized because these programs reduce roughness within prisons.

These are the examples argumentative thesis statement examples because one can support them with case studies or evidence. You can build your thesis around the format of the points above if you’re writing an argument essay.

Components Of Writing A Thesis Statement


A thesis statement for essay must focus on a single aspect of an issue. Choose a broad topic and then narrow it down until you find a single component to focus on.


You should be certain about your position. To encourage your readers to embrace your reasoning and open their minds to what you have to say, you should adopt an authoritative tone.


You must be able to back up any statement you make in your thesis with evidence and arguments.


A thesis statement must be detailed enough to allow for a logical argument and keep the reader’s attention on the topic.


The thesis statement is the phrase that sheds light on the problem you will discuss in your paper. It should be compact, combative, and consistent, which should join the links with your whole piece and provides the reader with a map to follow your essay.

Read more

How to Write Acknowledgements for PhD Thesis and Dissertation?

May it be a thesis or dissertation, completing your PhD degree is challenging. However, it is difficult apart from other coursework is thesis or dissertation.

Drafting them takes a lot of time, especially if you are writing a PhD dissertation or an acknowledgement for masters dissertation. This is because the length of a PhD thesis is more than the thesis of any degree. It usually consists of sixty thousand to eighty thousand.

This word limit involves endnotes and footnotes but leaves appendices and a bibliography/reference list. Figures, images, tables, etc. equivalent to one-fifty words for each page, or portion of the page, that they occupied.

It is not just the extensive length of the PhD dissertation but also its complexity. Therefore, you can not complete it without the help of others. May that be in terms of funding your research or academic help, you need supporters.

Once you attain their help, you need to acknowledge their effort. For this purpose, you are asked to write the acknowledgement chapter of the thesis or dissertation.

This post will learn the purpose of acknowledgements and their types. You will also learn how to write a PhD dissertation acknowledgement and dissertation acknowledgements examples. So keep on reading.

What Is The Purpose Of Dissertation Acknowledgements?

The acknowledgements in dissertation writing are the section where you thank all the instuitions and people. You may also thank the companies who helped you complete the dissertation successfully. It is quite alike dedication, except that there is some level of formality when writing an acknowledgement chapter.

There is no need to mention every individual who aided you with the research. However, you have to mention those who played a crucial role in helping you with the research. You should also thank the subjects of your research. For example, you do not need to thank your pet for not distracting you when working.


The Acknowledgements in dissertation are noted down right after the title page and before the abstract. Remember that it should not extend more than one page.

Writing Style

When writing acknowledgements, feel free to utilize a more creative style. You can also get a bit more informal than what is usually practised in academic writing. If you like, then taking help from someone working in PhD dissertation help UK is also a good option.

The Acknowledgements chapter is not a part of academic work itself. Therefore you may take it as a chance to write something more personal. For this, you have to use first-person pronouns in the section.

Types of Acknowledgements

Are you wondering what some types of PhD dissertation acknowledgements are? In general, acknowledgements can be divided into professional and personal classes.

Few universities only permit students to acknowledge those who have contributed directly to the research, for example, professionals or other members of academia. You have to check the university’s guidelines to find out.

First of all, should start acknowledging professionals. There is no definite saying regarding the order of acknowledgements. Although, the standard practice is to move from the most formal supporters to the minimum ones.

You can craft it and only write “Thank you” for some acknowledgements. At other times you can outline how exactly a specific person helped you.

Professional Acknowledgements

Always remember not to miss out on anybody that helped you. Be especially vigilant about those who come under the professional kind.

You should mention the members of academia and funders who have participated in your research. This includes:

You should remember to write the full name of contributors with titles. If some crowd or organization members assisted you, then mention their collective name only. If you want to protect someone’s privacy, you can use their first name. You can also use generic identifiers, for instance, the interviewee.

If you have discussed your research with an authoritative person in your field, mention their contribution. You also have to mention their name if you have gotten any feedback from them. It is not correlational to the amount of help you get. This is because, thanks to the authoritative contributors, your research has become more valid.

Personal Acknowledgements

Remember this when you are writing personal acknowledgements – you do not have to mention every member of your family or friend group. However, you may come across someone that has been particularly supportive or inspiring to you. When you are in such a situation, acknowledge them specifically.

In some cases, the personal acknowledgement can get very meaningful. For example, you can witness it in dissertations where the research occurred under challenging conditions. In addition, some students feel like dedicating their research to a deceased family member. If so is the case, you should mention them before professional acknowledgements.

If you are a religious person, you may feel like writing the best dissertation would not have been possible if God’s help. In this scenario, you can also acknowledge God in the acknowledgements section. First, however, remember following the conventions thanking academic members, family, and friends who have assisted you.

Remember that undergraduate dissertation acknowledgements and all other dissertations acknowledgements are written similarly.

How To Write PhD Dissertation And Thesis Acknowledgements?

There is no difference between PhD dissertation acknowledgements and thesis acknowledgements.

Now you may wonder, “How shall I write my PhD thesis acknowledgments?” The answer to this question is:

Know Your University’s Requirement:

Before initiating your PhD thesis acknowledgement chapter, you must get familiar with the university’s guidelines. Check if your university has any requirements or limitations regarding its length. In addition, check for its requirements for the thesis or dissertation content.

Some universities limit the types of things that you can say. Although mostly, there are only a few limitations regarding it. Other universities have their word limits. Therefore, they may not follow typically practised requirements. If you are a bachelor’s student and this is entirely new for you, consider taking the help. You can avail of academic help from some bachelor thesis writing service or your professor.

Universities know that it takes many people to organize and participate in the research. So they give you ample opportunity to recognize them through the PhD thesis acknowledgement chapter.

Know Whom to Thank

Competing for a dissertation or a thesis is a celebration in itself. So go ahead and tell those who have helped that you appreciate the – professional and personal.

Thesis and Dissertation Acknowledgement Examples

Are you still confused regarding how to write your acknowledgement for masters dissertation? Do not worry; here are a few acknowledgement examples you can look at:

  1. I want to thank my professor, Lara Benedict, for inspiring me to change human behaviour and cognition.
  2. I would fancy acknowledging my superintendent, Robert Johnathan’s support and effort in guiding me through each stage of the process.
  3. My research companion, Dr Susie Dsouza, proved to be very cooperative in defining the direction of this research. For this, I am incredibly thankful to her.
  4. Thank you to my elder sister for supporting me mentally, ensuring that I always ate correctly and worked hard. I could not have managed it without her motivation.
  5. This project would have been impossible without the support of multiple people. Many thanks to my adviser, Laurence D. Brown, who read my plentiful revisions and helped make sense of the confusion. Also, I am thankful to my committee members, Janet Green, G.T. Tarrance, and Jade Barerra, who guided and supported me.

If you can not think of how to start your sentence, an example of acknowledgement in dissertation could be “I would like to thank….” Explain how much a group of each has contributed to your thesis.

Remember to not dive in deep and give too much appreciation to a particular outside party helper. You can not go out of the way to display who you are the most grateful to. Although it is essential to acknowledge, it is unprofessional for you to fixate on one specific contributor. It also minimizes the probability of these supporters ever aiding you in the future.

Writing any conclusion or summary at the end of the text is not required. Instead, proceed to end your acknowledgements by saying thank you.

End Remarks

This is all you need to know for crafting a PhD thesis and dissertation acknowledgements. The dissertation acknowledgements examples given are not specifically tailored to a PhD level. Therefore, you can refer to these examples for any degree.

Read more

How to Write a Thesis Outline

Many students do not find interest in thesis writing and that’s why try to finish it in a hurry. Writing a thesis does not mean just rushing over words. It requires a complete plan and smart strategy to deal with the selected research topic.

Without a roadmap, you cannot proceed with your thesis. The thesis outline plays the role of the roadmap so that you can reach your destiny, i.e. the accomplishment of the degree – the ultimate academic success.

Here is the detailed guide about why making a thesis outline, beforehand, is important and how students can write it properly to manage their proceedings systematically.

Why Outlining a Thesis is Important

In the thesis outline, you mention in detail what and how you are going to do in your thesis, what approach you will follow, and what contributions your thesis would make to the subject. You can search for the thesis outline template online to get an idea of how your thesis outline is supposed to be written.

Outlining a thesis means you are planning your 6 months’ schedules because usually, the students have to write and submit their thesis in six months. Following are the major reasons why a thesis outline is important.

It Helps You Make a Schedule

The thesis outline shows you a picture of multiple steps that you need to take to efficiently get done with your thesis. In this way, it helps you make a schedule. This means you can divide your study hours to fulfill the determined steps and work on your thesis accordingly.

It Organizes Your Work

When you work according to what you have planned in the outline, your thesis automatically becomes organized. You will not have to roam around and look hither thither to decide what to do next. Your work will be organized and will help you move forward with a swift flow.

It Saves Your Time

The prewritten thesis paper outline helps you stay focused on the topic and doesn’t let you waste your time with irrelevant thoughts, ideas, and research. Therefore, you proceed with your work quickly that ultimately saving your time.

It Doesn’t Let You Forget Anything

When you plan your thesis according to the chapters and assemble it all in your thesis outline, it will help you remember each step. Also, you don’t miss the important points while writing your thesis if you mention and highlight them in the prewritten outline.

Essential Elements of a Thesis Outline

Whether you are planning to write a bachelor’s thesis outline or a master’s thesis outline, you must consider the factors that shape the way you do your work. Following are the most important elements that you must include in your thesis outline.

Thesis Statement

The problem statement provides the basis for your thesis. You must add it to your thesis outline. Form it as if you are writing a thesis statement outline and state what points you will raise in your problem statement. Also, tell how your research would deal with the proposed thesis statement. In some of the scientific thesis, the problem statement itself outlines the thesis.

Major Ideas

Clearly list out the major ideas that you have in your mind concerning the topic and the research. These ideas, later on, give birth to strong arguments when you start writing your thesis. Also, adding these ideas to the thesis outline helps you determine your secondary sources that can support your main argument.

The Research Questions

By including research questions in your thesis outline, you can choose your research methodology. Prewritten research questions will help you determine which research tools can get you the required answers.

The Proposed Research Methodology

While writing your undergraduate, master, or PhD thesis outline, you need to propose a suitable research methodology for your thesis. An outline must hold the research methods and tools that you are going to use to collect the facts, figures, and other information for your thesis.

The Determined Approach

Your thesis outline must follow a single approach to plan each chapter. You have to write your whole thesis under the approach that you use and mention in your thesis outline, so you must be conscious enough to select an appropriate approach, like chronological, thematic, and theoretical, etc.

Tips to Prepare a Thesis Outline

Planning and preparing a thesis outline has a lot of advantages as discussed above. You may look for a thesis outline example over the internet to have a better understanding of the task. However, here are some useful tips that should be considered while preparing the thesis outline.

Form a Comprehensive Problem Statement

Don’t forget to write a comprehensive problem statement in your thesis outline. It will help you carry out the relevant research give backing to your findings.

Write Your Aims & Objectives

Your thesis outline must contain the aims and objectives of your research as well as the thesis. When your goals are predetermined, it shows you a clear roadmap that you need to follow to achieve the goals.

Be Clear & Concise

Stay stick to the main points while writing your thesis outline. You don’t need to write details in the outline. You may use bullet pointers to prepare the outline for the whole thesis. Write your pan in a clear and concise way.

Stay Focused & Relevant

Do not go irrelevant both in terms of research and writing. Your points, arguments, research questions, and research methodology, each and everything you add to your thesis outline must be relevant and focused on your thesis topic.

Assemble All the Ideas

You need to write down all the ideas in your outline that you have in your mind concerning your thesis topic. When you note thesis ideas on paper, they provoke your thoughts and help you generate effective ways to insert them into your thesis.

List Your Arguments

In your thesis outline, you must list out the arguments that you want to highlight later your thesis. This will help you remember these arguments so that you can use them correctly at the right place when needed.

Take Online Assistance

You can take online assistance to get done with your thesis outline without a hassle. Several online thesis help services can help you in this regard. This would be a wise option as it will save your time and the thesis outline you will get from the professionals would be perfect by all means.

Final Note

This is the complete guide to writing a thesis outline. No matter if you have to write a bachelor’s, PhD, or master’s thesis outline, these tips, and other details will help you get done with your task efficiently and effectively.

Read more

Free presentation slides

If you are a course instructor willing to educate your class or a student who wants to learn then refer to our free presentation slides available for Google slides and Microsoft PowerPoint.

How to Write a Conclusion

All’s well that ends well; it is true for your academic projects as well. While it is important to start them right, it is equally important to end them right as well.
Let this blog guide you on how to write a conclusion. By following this guide you can write the kind of conclusion that leaves an ever-lasting impression on the mind of your reader.
Remember writing a conclusion can be a pain in the neck because not everyone has the skill to summarize a topic – that too something as long as a thesis. The primary focus of this blog is to be a professional thesis conclusion guide for every student.


It is the final part of any written assignment – the general purpose of the conclusion is to summarize the efforts and mention the key points of your assignment, essay, and dissertation.
Different academic projects have different academic requirements. BUT! One requirement that remains the same is to write a well-explained conclusion, either you are writing an essay conclusion or a thesis conclusion.

How exactly does the theoretical framework hold the structure of a theory? It does so by explaining the nature of the relationship between variables.

Significance of a conclusion

Underestimating the importance of a conclusion is like risking your marks. The conclusion is the last thing that a reader reads in your piece of writing so it should not be messed with. While, understanding the importance of the conclusion, nail the following points in your head:

  • checked It helps the reader in understanding how much your research has achieved its aims and objectives.
  • checked Every story needs closure so is your essay or a thesis.
  • checked It helps the other researchers to find a research gap for further research.
  • checkedConclusion and abstract are what grabs the attention of the reader to your essay or thesis.
  • checked Sums up your entire effort – it summarizes your findings and their implications.

Conclusion in a research paper

Now you have gotten a little bit of an idea about a conclusion; it is the perfect time to get into the details of a research conclusion.

How does it fit into your overall research project?

Its placement: It is the last chapter of the dissertation; hence it comes towards the end. However, it is not the last portion. The last portion of your thesis is the bibliography which comes after the conclusion.

Length: A typical thesis conclusion comprises 5-7% of your dissertation’s total word count.

Contribution to the Grade: how much the conclusion contributes to your dissertation grade depends upon your professor and institute, but this section has the potential to boost your grade or to drown it.

The time required: Since a dissertation conclusion only recaps and reflects on your efforts and does not require you to add any new information, it does not require much time and effort.

Steps to writing worthy qualified conclusions!

If you have read this far, you know that it is crucial to conclude your dissertation well. And now you want to learn how to make it perfect.
Don’t worry! It’s simple – at least it has been made simple by providing this guide.

Step1 – Answer your research question

The conclusion of a research paper always begins with the main research question that your study aimed to answer. This shows your supervisor that you have achieved your research objective by answering the research question. Hence, you should make sure that you state the answer to your research question clearly and concisely.

You do not have to restate all the results in this section. Rather, you have to compile and synthesize them in a manner that your evaluator can take away the key points from it.

A thesis set out to solve a practical might address the research problem like this:

Example: This research aimed to identify effective fundraising strategies for environmental non-profit organizations. Based on a quantitative and qualitative analysis of donation in response to campaign materials, it can be concluded that social distance and temporal distance are important factors to consider when designing and targeting campaigns. The results indicate that potential donors are more receptive to images portraying a large social distance and a small temporal distance.

Step2 – Summarize and reflect!

Once you have answered the research question, it’s time to reflect – you should briefly discuss your expectations while setting out to conduct this research and how close the actual results to those expectations are and why.


Be reflective, smartly describe your research purpose, evaluate and analyze the purpose.

If you haven’t mentioned the limitations in the discussion, this is your chance – do mention your research limitations in the conclusion. However, make sure not to make those limitations the focus of your conclusion.

Step3 – Make recommendations

After mentioning the limitations, answer this key question, “How your research adds value to the existing literature on the topic?” and, based on that, make recommendations.

State the implications of your findings and tell your supervisor what those findings mean for theory and the practical implications.

Make sure not to exaggerate the applicability of your study. And your recommendations should sound like suggestions and not imperatives.


Step4 – Bring emphasis to your contributions

You must utilize this section to emphasize the contributions of your research – the aim must be to leave your supervisor (or whoever is reading your research) with a strong impression. Emphasize how this research has contributed to the knowledge related to your topic (in particular) and the field of study (in general). You can accomplish that using the following strategies.

Remember this is not a step to have a discussion, this is a step to summarize and talk about your contributions.

Step5 – Prepare for a wrap party!

In the last step, you are done with your conclusion. Now, all you have to do is to perform the last following rituals of your research.

Most frequently asked conclusion questions

That depends on your professor and your university’s criteria. So you have to be aware of your university’s requirements. You might have to talk to your research supervisor to know exactly how much weightage of your dissertation is concentrated in the final chapter.

Discussion is the list of results and compares them with the existing literature. The purpose is to report.


The conclusion is all about synthesizing the results in the form of a final takeaway. The purpose is to reflect.

They are two different sections of a research paper and serve different purposes – they may be merged as one.

The conclusion is not always the last section – references and appendices come after the conclusion

The takeaway

A conclusion is the part of a dissertation that you have to get right. If you follow your professors’ guidelines and the information shared in this blog, you will nail the final chapter of your dissertation. Still, if you think you won’t be able to write a good conclusion due to any reason outsource the thesis conclusion is one of the reason but you can also take personalize consultancy from me through my LinkedIn Profile because it is important to end your dissertation well!

Read more

Free presentation slides

If you are a course instructor willing to educate your class or a student who wants to learn then refer to our free presentation slides available for Google slides and Microsoft PowerPoint.

Meet Dr. Sara Nathan

About Dr. Sara Nathan

I am Dr. Sara Nathan and I have done a Ph.D. in aviation management. I have experience of 10 years in mentoring UK’s Students. Over this decade. I enjoy being able to help researchers all around the world as imparting valuable information has always been my passion. Writing & Reading are my passions. For detail about me and to read my other blog you can visit my profile:

My Profile

What is a theoretical framework? The study material for researcher Literature review

Research problems are not simple, and neither are their solutions
To find a solution to a research problem, there are several questions that you have to consider, and you must answer these questions while you are planning your research project out. Because if you leave them for later stages, you will lose direction and consequently lose your grade.

  • checked Which theory should you depend on?
  • checked What variables should you consider?
  • checked Should you rely on a single theory to solve your research problem, or you should consider multiple theories?

When you set out to develop a theoretical framework, you will find answers to all these questions.
If you look for a theoretical framework definition online, you will find a ton of information on it. Is that a good thing? Not when you are already confused.
But don’t worry; this blog will tell you all you need to know about the theoretical framework in a way that will clear your confusion and set your research in the right direction.

What is a theoretical framework?

The theoretical framework provides a structure that holds a theory by explaining the relationships between all the variables involved.
Theories explain certain phenomena and predict the outcomes of certain situations that have been researched. The structure that holds or supports a theory, is called the theoretical framework.
How exactly does the theoretical framework hold the structure of a theory? It does so by explaining the nature of the relationship between variables.

Importance of Theory

It is important to base your research on theory as it will guide you in the right direction and tell you exactly what to look for when answering your research questions.
Though you have to include a Theoretical framework in the literature review chapter of your research, it most often is not something that you can readily find within the literature. What that means is, you have to read the literature and understand the theories relevant to your research problem, determine what variables are involved in your research, and then come up with the theoretical framework.

How The Theoretical Framework Strengthens Research?

Theoretical framework is to strengthen your research. It does so in the following ways:

  • checked It lets the reader know the main theoretical assumptions hence allowing the reader to evaluate those assumptions.
  • checked It connects you to the existing knowledge, and based on the relevant theory, helps you develop hypotheses and guide you on what method to select to test your hypotheses.
  • checked A theoretical framework also specifies the key variables that influence a phenomenon under investigation.

Purpose of Theoretical Framework

Theories are the conceptual basis for understanding, analyzing, and designing ways to investigate relationships between variables. The purpose of the theoretical framework is to:

  • checked Help identify and define the research problems.
  • checked Help prescribe or evaluate the solutions to research problems.
  • checked Give old data new interpretations and new meaning.
  • checked Help identify new issues and prescribe the critical research questions that must be answered to maximize the understanding of the issue.

What makes up a theoretical framework?

Yes, a theoretical framework is derived from theory, but at the core of it, a theoretical framework is built upon variables.


A variable can be anything that you aim to measure and investigate in your research.

Types of variables based on the relationships

The variable that is influenced by a change in the independent variable is called the dependent variable.
The variable that you tweak to test its impact on the dependent variable.
It is both a dependent and an independent variable at the same time. The mediating variable is dependent on the independent variable, and it influences the dependent variable.
Confused? Don’t worry, mediation will be explained through an example later in this post.
Moderating variable explains the strength of the relationship between the dependent and the independent variable.
Interdependent Variables
When two variables are mutually dependent on one another, they are called interdependent variables.

Strategies for Developing the Theoretical Framework

Examine your title and research problem
Your research topic often mentions the variables you are going to investigate and so you can construct your theoretical framework based on your research title. If you choose to go for this strategy, you must also examine your research problem as it will guide you further in understanding the nature of relationships between variables.

Brainstorm key variables in your research

Determine what factors contribute to the presumed effect in your study.

Review related literature

Chances are, the problem you are researching has already been researched before. Reviewing the literature will help you find out how scholars have addressed your research problem.
Identify the assumptions from which the author(s) addressed the problem and base your theoretical framework on those assumptions.

List the constructs and variables

Categorize the variables in your study into dependent, independent, moderating, or mediating variables and break the variables down into their constructs to make them measurable.

Review the key social science theories

There must be multiple theories you have studied throughout your curriculum that promise to explain your research problem. Pick the theory that is the most relevant, and let that be the basis of your framework.
Note: You will still have to support your argument by reviewing the literature to justify your choice.

Presenting Your Theoretical Framework

Now, there are no set structure for presenting your theoretical framework, but the best way is to present it visually as it makes the complex ideas easy to understand. You might need a theoretical framework example to learn more about presenting your framework the right way.

Presenting moderating variable


In this example, hours of study impact a student’s exam score, and IQ moderates this relationship – it determines how strong the impact of study hours will be on the exam score.

Demonstrating the mediation effect


In the above example, Hours of study impact the exam score of a student, and the number of practice problems completed mediates this relationship – it is dependent on hours of study, and the exam score is dependent on it.

Presenting interdependent variables


Come on, do I even have to explain this? Well, it simply means that the hours of study impact a student’s exam score.

Presenting interdependent variables


In this example, the variables fashion consciousness and materialism both impact each other.

Note: In addition to visually presenting the relationship between variables you must also explain the variables and the relationships between them.

Dos and Don’ts While Developing A Theoretical Framework


Concluding Thoughts

Now that you know the role of the Theoretical framework in the thesis and how to go about it, you can be sure that your research project will take the right direction!

Read more

About Brianna Zack

About Brianna Zack

What’s better than utilizing your hobby? Trust me, nothing. Greetings! I am Brianna zack, a writer by birth and by profession. I am an MBA graduate in Business and I have been sharing my views and thoughts with others for the past 5 years. My career started as a professor in a business school. During the time when I was a teacher, I also use to write blogs related to academic writing which afterwards became my full-time profession.

My Profile

Free presentation slides

If you are a course instructor willing to educate your class or a student who wants to learn then refer to our free presentation slides available for Google slides and Microsoft PowerPoint.

Quantitative vs Qualitative Data A guide for a researchers

“The relationship between crime statistics and immigration”

This is just another example of a research topic. Do you know what kind of data is required for this particular topic? If not, then find the answer to this question at the end of this blog.

What Is Research Data?

Research data is information that has been collected or observed to test the research hypothesis. Data has to be authentic and reliable in order to conduct a successful and quality research, unreliable data will lead to compromised results. Data can be primary or secondary depending on the requirement of the research that is being conducted.

To select the right type of data that is needed for your study qualitative and quantitative difference. Should be understood. It is also crucial to note that your topic choice leads you to selecting the right data type for your research. A topic that aims to test impact of a certain variable over the other will always be quantitative likewise a topic that aims to analyze a certain variable will be qualitative.

Quantitative vs Qualitative Data

Quantitative data is part of quantitative research. Quantitative research is the use of numbers to collect and present data. For quantitative data the topic should include words like “impact”, “functional relation” and “Effect of” etc. An example of a quantitative topic could be

To Assess The Impact Of Social Media Marketing On Improving Brand
Awareness In Organizations In Uk”

Qualitative data is based on non-quantifiable elements, it’s more concerned with observations and descriptions. The topic can include terms like “analyze”, “State” and “Understanding” etc. An example of qualitative topic could be

“An Assessment About The Internal Brand Management In Relation To The Issue Of Communication In Employee Engagement – A Case Study Of Pakistan Telecom Industry”

Here’s a chart to help differentiate between quantitative research methods and qualitative research methods:


Research philosophy

This defines how you gather, analyze and use the data for your particular research.
In quantitative research we use positivism which tests cause and effect relation whereas in qualitative interpretivism is used which does not test cause and effect relation, it provides the reader with detailed understanding of the topic with different point of views.

Research approach

Deductive approach tests an existing theory and inductive approach helps develop a new theory. In qualitative research inductive approach is followed as qualitative study is for new and innovative topics therefore little to no literature exists. Whereas in quantitative study a theory is tested therefore deductive approach is followed.

Research design

Exploratory research design studies research questions and leaves a gap for further studies on that topic whereas conclusive research design, tests and provides findings for the study and concludes the study. In quantitative research both these approaches can be followed however in qualitative only an exploratory design is implemented.

Data Analysis

To test and analyze the data quantitative study requires to run statistical tests these can include testing the reliability and validity of variables, testing the impact on variables on each other through regression. In qualitative data is analyzed through different methods these include

  • checked Thematic Analysis: This is when data is grouped into themes based on their similarities.
  • checked Content Analysis: This is when you can identify patterns through the provided data.
  • checked Discourse Analysis: This is when you analyze the language, speech or debate. This is mostly conducted to understand cultures.

Depending on your topic and guidelines each of the two, or a mixed data collection method, can be used.

Mixed Data

Mixed data is used when quantitative and qualitative both methods are used in a research. Your topic identifies the research type. In a mixed research a topic could be

“To Analyse The Impact Of Plain Folk Advertising Techniques On Family Shopping
Behaviour Of Consumers: A Case Of Asda Uk”

Here the topic talks about both analysis and impact therefore it is important that a mixed research method is followed. This could be collection of surveys and also taking interviews to test the results of those surveys or vice versa. In a mixed approach data collection methods of quantitative and qualitative are combined.


Data Collection Methods

Just like qualitative and quantitative data can differ so can their methods. Quantitative data collection methods include objective measurements and statistical data analysis. This mostly revolves around numbers and quantifiable data. Quantitative data collection methods include surveys and experiments.

Qualitative data collection methods include observational measurement and visual analysis and mostly depends on non-quantifiable elements. Qualitative data collection methods include interviews with open ended questions and focus groups.

What data type you should use?

Choosing a research method and data type solely depends on the guidelines and requirements you have been provided with from your institute. If your institution requires you to study “the effect of prices on brand switching behavior” you will have to opt for a quantitative study to test the impact of prices on switching behavior and to test the dependency of switching behavior on prices.

When to use quantitative data?

Quantitative data should be used when a researcher is trying to quantify an issue, like we discussed in the example above. The effect on prices on brand switching behavior needs to be quantified.

When to use qualitative data?

Qualitative data should be used when a hypothesis is being developed for further testing or when non-quantifiable factors like emotions and feelings have to be tested.

Sample Data


Dos and Don’ts

Here are some dos and don’ts to follow while collecting data.


Now that we have all relevant information we can figure out what data type is required for the topic we initially discussed. Were you able to figure it out? Since we are talking about a relationship between two variables we will have to test their impact and dependency on each other therefore making it a quantitative research. Since it’s a quantitative research quantitative data will be gathered and analyzed.

Read more

Free presentation slides

If you are a course instructor willing to educate your class or a student who wants to learn then refer to our free presentation slides available for Google slides and Microsoft PowerPoint.

Meet Dr. Sara Nathan

About Dr. Sara Nathan

I am Dr. Sara Nathan and I have done a Ph.D. in aviation management. I have experience of 10 years in mentoring UK’s Students. Over this decade. I enjoy being able to help researchers all around the world as imparting valuable information has always been my passion. Writing & Reading are my passions. For detail about me and to read my other blog you can visit my profile:

My Profile

How to write a systematic literature review with examples from a TDH expert.

Before performing any research, the first thing you do to get the ball rolling is EXTRACTING THE DATA off the internet about your topic. The research you are about to perform is based on the data you have extracted earlier.

One of the best professional dissertation writers believes that a student’s foremost mistake in research is when writing a literature review. And when the students are opting for the systematic literature review, their chance to get lost in the vast amount of data is greatly minimized. Specifically, the systematic literature review is the correct option to get the information when conducting the secondary research.

What is a systematic review?

“A systematic review states the clear objective of your research. It includes all the shreds of evidence that support your research questions.”

A systematic literature review aims to study and critically analyze the data for a formatted research question. Thus, a systematic literature review is thorough and transparent research conducted over all the shaded or grey data on the internet to be reviewed and replicated by other researchers.

A systematic literature review must be;


How to know if a systematic literature review is a suitable option for you?

Well, there are some attributes that you should consider when you are opting for a systematic literature review;

  • checked If you wish to gather and study analysis on a particular topic, SLR is the right option.
  • checked If you have more than two people to research with you, then SLR is the right option for you as it is an extensive method.
  • checked If you have a year or more to submit your research, you should go for a systematic review.
  • checked If you have a well-defined research question on which you are willing to do Meta-analysis, then a systematic literature review is the ultimate option for you.

Steps for writing a systematic literature review

With assistance from our PhD dissertation proposal writing experts, the following are the steps of writing a successful systematic literature review.

Let’s learn about the unique steps in a systematic review.

Step1: Formulate a Research question

This step is to develop the research question or gap that can be further studied. A well-structured systematic literature review must begin with a well-structured question as well. It provides a boundary to your research which ultimately narrows down your focus to related information. The research question may follow the PICOS framework, according to which your question must be designed with strength to answer the following aspects;

Formulate a Research question

Example: Violent games initiate hyperactivity in the kids.

Step2: Identify your research question

In this step, you will have to identify your research question. Then, make decisions here about what to study within the niche areas. You will also need to identify the top researchers whose work you are likely to read. Finally, remember the criteria to set your research question so that it can encounter a bigger picture.

Example: If you are studying the effects of violent games, you will target gamers, explore technology, and by doing so will help you identify your research question.

Step3: Define eligibility criteria 

Defining eligibility criteria means that you are setting boundaries to include or exclude the studies in your research. Abundant information is available on the internet, so you limit what you research to account for your input.

After you have set the criteria, make sure you stick to that to ensure the exclusion part of the research does not get involved. The study’s outcomes can not be part of the criteria, but some reviews set eligibility in such a way to get a specific outcome.  You have all the freedom on this step, and you can always set criteria based on your convenience.

Example: To know about the negative impacts of violent games, you would not want to include the opinion of those gamers whose bread and butter runs on playing violent games.

Step4: Develop a research protocol 

Before developing a research protocol, it is better to know what a research protocol is. A research protocol is creating a document containing the outline of your research, what questions will be answered, the description of your objectives search strategy, and the eligibility criteria you are looking forward to adopting in your review. Even if you have looked for a systematic review methodology example off the internet, you can share those methodologies in your protocol. If you face trouble setting the methods, you can learn from the systematic review methodology example

Step5: Conduct literature search

You have given yourself the map to research in the previous step; it is time to follow the lines. You must identify the studies to read the relevant and precise data. The more you read on your research, the harder it would get for you to control. You can expect yourself to get a large number of data depending on the scope of your topic, so you must know about the several techniques to conduct a quality literature search;

  • checked Databased search
  • checked Identifying the search terms
  • checked A thorough reading of specialized journals.
  • checked You may coordinate with the respective experts that are working in the field.
  • checked Make sure to read the grey literature related to your topic.

Example: The search terms to help you get the relevant data would be gaming related, technology-related, etc.

Step6: Select studies per protocol

This step instead calls for teamwork to ignore biasness. Upon conducting the literature search, you have now access to a good amount of information. So, now it is time to analyze the data and check if that information is eligible enough to be included in your research. For this step, you may divide the among the two or three participants and then start studying the literature with the following techniques;

  • checked Study the abstracts first as they are the nectar of the whole research, so you can fathom if that particular research is proper for you or not.
  • checked It would be best if you make the final decision on study inclusion.
  • checked Try to get the full text of your relevant studies so you can examine them to determine eligibility.
  • checked Once you are done with it, you should keep track of why you have omitted some studies, just for future reference.

Step7: Appraise studies per protocol

Ensure to check and balance if the studies you have selected for your research are based upon the research protocol you have made earlier. This step is to ensure that the conclusion of the studies is not biased.

Step8: Extract data

Now that you have selected the relevant studies, it is time to extract the data from those particular studies. At least two of the members of your research team should be bound to extract the data from those studies independently; they should now be making notes about the methodologies, hypothesis, discussion and results of relevant search studies. The data should be in the right, balanced amount as extracting too much and too little data can lead to oversight of essential results.

Step9: Access the quality of evidence and present results

This step is to analyze the pieces of evidence to interpret the results.  By accessing the quality of your studies, you give strength to the evidence provided in your systematic review. You can even set specific criteria for the quality assessment of your review.  It can have the following attributes;

  • checked How much it supports the objective of your research?
  • checked Calculate the ratio of biasness in your result.
  • checked How much generalizability does your research solutions have?
  • checked What is the quality of reporting?

Dos and Don’ts


By following the above systematic literature reveiew steps, I am sure you can write a systematic review without hiring any systematic literature review services. And feel free to share this blog with anyone looking for systematic literature review help as it enunciates all the technicalities of an SLR.

Good Luck!

Read more

Free presentation slides

If you are a course instructor willing to educate your class or a student who wants to learn then refer to our free presentation slides available for Google slides and Microsoft PowerPoint.

How To Write An Annotated Bibliography

“…and don’t forget to add annotated bibliography to your assignments.” These dreadful words were uttered at the last minute of our research session, with no time left to ask any questions I stood numb for a minute only so that my brain could accept and understand all the information that was communicated.
After tremendous requests we were granted a separate session on annotation bibliography only to realize it’s not as confusing as it sounds.

What Is An Annotated Bibliography?

Annotation means to explain something, annotated bibliography is explaining or commenting on the sources that you provided. It summarizes your citations in order to make it easier for your readers to understand the relevance of your sources. This is when you mention a citation and then to briefly describe the study you provide information about the author, mention the year of the study and state what the study is about. One of the best assignment writing services endorse that Annotated Bibliography saves the readers’ time and helps them understand the importance of each mentioned source in one go rather than looking up each one of them.
Here’s an example to help understand the concept:

Example: Sarkar, S. (2007). Potential of kefir as a dietetic beverage: a review. British Food Journal, 109(4), 280-290.
Sarkar (2007) examined the literature in order to determine the nutritional characteristics of kefir, as well as its potential to offer positive health benefits.

Purpose Of An Annotated Bibliography


Questions To Consider In Annotations


Contents Of An Annotated Bibliography

Annotated bibliography begins with references, followed by their description. Annotated bibliography is always numbered and arranged in alphabetical order. Annotated bibliography should include the following content:

  • checked Proper citation.
  • checked Background of the authors.
  • checked Outline the main argument, audience and scope of the text.
  • checked Summarize the main argument.
  • checked Clarify the methodology of the research.
  • checked Conclude what has been presented in the research.
  • checked Discuss how the citation is relevant for your work.

How To Write An Annotated Bibliography

Writing an annotated bibliography becomes easier if you organize your sources properly. Organizing references and keeping track of your citations is very important. Here’s a step by step guide for writing annotated bibliography.

Step1: Analysis of Sources

Proving your source’s credibility is important therefore you have to consider your author’s qualifications, to understand the author’s reliability. Moreover the credibility of the journal also holds importance. An unknown journal will not be credible and would not be a good enough source to cite. Using weak citations will not only impact your research’s authenticity but also your grade. One of the best dissertation writers of UK advised that your source should be recent, a very old source loses its credibility and becomes obsolete therefore keep in mind that all the sources you cite are from the past 5 years unless you are required to cite older sources.

Step2: Create Your Annotations

Annotations can be of four different types, here are the following:

Step3: Annotated Bibliography Format 

Writing style of annotations can change according to the citation format that you are required to follow in your assignment. Here are three common formatting styles and how to write annotated bibliography in each.


APA Style demands reference entry and annotation to be double spaced and left aligned. The annotation follows the reference in the next line. Citations are automatically formatted in APA citation generator when you download the bibliography.

Example: Taylor, Monica And Mal Leicester. Ethics, Ethnicity And Education. Bristol, Pa: Taylor
And Francis, 1992. This Book Is An Important And Inherently Controversial Collection Of Papers That Discusses The Major Moral Issues In Multicultural School Education. Topics Discussed Include The Ethical Aspects Of The Separate Schools Debate, Strategies For Establishing A Democratic School And Preparing Teachers To Be More Moral Educators, And Consideration Of The Values Implicitly Antiracist/ Multicultural Education.


In MLA style, the reference and the annotation are both double-spaced and left-aligned.
The annotation itself is indented 1 inch. If there are two or more paragraphs in the annotation, the first line of each paragraph is indented an additional half-inch, but not if there is only one paragraph.
Your citations will be properly formatted if you are using MLA Citation generator.

Example: Gurko, Leo. Ernest Hemingway And The Pursuit Of Heroism. New York: Crowell, 1968. This Book Is Part Of A Series Called “twentieth Century American Writers”: A Brief Introduction To The Man And His Work. After Fifty Pages Of
Straight Biography, Gurko Discussed Hemingway’s Writing, Novel By Novel. There’s An Index And A Short Bibliography, But No Notes. The Biographical Part Is Clear And Easy To Read, But It Sounds Too Much Like A Summary.


In Chicago style, the entry should be single-spaced and have a hanging indent. The annotation should be indented, double-spaced, and left-aligned.

Example: Kenny, Anthony. A New History Of Western Philosophy: In Four Parts. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Broad History Of Western Philosophy From The Ancient Greeks To The Present Day. Divided Into Four Periods ancient, Medieval, Early Modern, And Modern each Section Begins With A Chronological Overview Of The Key Thinkers, Followed By Chapters Dedicated To Each Significant Subfield In The Period: Metaphysics, Political Philosophy, God, Etc. Kenny Generally Provides Thorough And Fair Assessments Of The Major Philosophers’ Work, But Is Pointedly Dismissive Of Derrida And Other Critical Theorists, Significantly Weakening The Book’s Coverage Of “postmodern” Philosophy

Comparison Between Formats

Double spaced Double spaced reference Single spaced reference
Left aligned Left aligned Indented heading
Annotations follow in the next line after reference Single spaced annotations Double spaced and left aligned annotation

Dos and Don’ts

Now that we have clarified what annotations are here’s a dos and don’ts checklist for further help.


This is everything that you need to know about annotations, I hope this blog was able to help you understand that annotations are not as scary as you might have thought they were.

Read more

Free presentation slides:

If you are a course instructor willing to educate your class or a student who wants to learn then refer to our free presentation slides available for Google slides and Microsoft PowerPoint.

How to write perfect dissertation Introduction- A complete solution in just 5 steps (with Examples)

In order to complete any professional degree, you have to submit a dissertation. If you don’t already know, a dissertation is a research project and it is usually divided into five to seven chapters depending upon the university’s preferred practice. Regardless of the number of chapters you have to write, the “introduction” is always going to be the first chapter.

What is Dissertation Introduction?

The introduction is the very first chapter of your dissertation. The introduction helps your professors get the idea about the topic, the research problem, and the scope of the study. It also gives your supervisors a little background of the topic, its importance and the main objectives of your research.

You should know how to write an introduction for a dissertation in a way that will leave your evaluators impressed – which is the key to scoring a good grade in your thesis.

This blog will help you do exactly that – it will equip with all information and knowledge necessary to give your dissertation the start that it deserves by telling you what to include in a dissertation introduction and how to go about it.

The purpose of introduction

The main purpose of the introduction chapter is to set the stage for your research and set your readers (which most likely are going to be your supervisor and evaluator) up for what is to come.

Why you need to get the introduction right?

Getting your introduction right is important because it helps form the right first impression on your evaluator. Yes, the right first impression does improve your chances of getting an A.

On the contrary, if you do a sloppy job in the introduction chapter, you are putting your grade at risk.

Steps to write a perfect introduction

Your introduction must include the following sections:

Steps to write a perfect introduction

This may seem too much. But don’t worry! This blog will explain, step-by-step, how to write each of these sections and what to cover in each of these headings of the “introduction” chapter of your thesis.

Step1: Research Background

The background informs the supervisor why the topic of your research is important.

The introduction of your research paper must start with the research background. Constructing the background research will not only help you understand the topic, but will also help your professors learn about the research problem and justify importance of your research.

How to write the research background?

While writing your research background, you must touch upon the important concepts related to your research topic. This will help create the right impression on your evaluators and they will know that you have thoroughly investigated the research problem and have understood all the aspects of your topic.

Here is an example of a well-written research background

For any organization that desires to thrives, change cannot be avoided. However, managing change and especially transformational change is always tough and challenging (Sirkin et al., 2005). A number of studies highlight that the majority of organizations introducing change initiatives fail to achieve the intended results (Kotter, 1996; Strebel, 1996). There is a consensus among management scholars and practitioners that the ability of an organization to adapt to and manage the process of change is crucial to its effectiveness (Brisson-Banks, 2010; Bridges and Michel, 2000).

Step2: Research Problem

The problem your research aims to solve must be clearly defined – though the background section and the portion in which you convince your professors of the significance of your research will touch on the research problem, this portion will present the problem statement.

The problem statement tells the evaluator why you are conducting this research and what purpose it will serve.

How to write a problem statement?

You must write your research problem in a clear and concise manner that will help your evaluators understand the purpose of your choosing a particular research topic and also give them the idea about what they should expect from your research.

If you want to persuade your professors to read other parts of your research paper (which by all means, you should, because you put a lot of effort into your research) you have to present the research problem in a convincing manner.

Problem statement holds the core importance in your dissertation because it lets the reader know the following key things:

  • checked The direction your investigation is going to proceed in.
  • checked The areas that your study will cover.

Here is what a problem statement looks like…

Non-profit organization X has been focused on retaining its existing support base, but lacks understanding of how best to target potential new donors. To be able to continue its work, the organization requires research into more effective fundraising strategies.

Step3: Aims and Objectives 

Once you are done with the research problem, you have to tell how you are going to solve the problem. That, you are going to do, by listing the aims and objectives of your research.

Aims and objectives are the statements that inform your supervisor of the results that your research is going to yield.

How to write the aims and objectives?

You have to derive the aims and objectives from your topic, research question or hypothesis. These are in fact, an extension of your research questions.

The statements you use to convey aims and objectives of your research should clearly communicate to the supervisors, your research intentions and also help them understand how you plan to answer the research question.

Here is an example of an objective statement derived from a research question…

Consider this research question: What is the impact of price on the demand of luxury goods?

Now, an objective statement derived from research question will look like: To study the impact of price on the demand of luxury goods.


Before moving on to the next portion, there are a few things you need to keep in mind about the aims and objectives:

  • checked Usually these statements start with phrases like, ‘to determine’, ‘to investigate’, ‘to assess’, ‘to critically assess’, ‘to understand’, ‘to evaluate’ etc.
  • checked The statements you use to communicate the aims and objectives must be brief, concise and relevant.
  • checked In the conclusion of your research, you will have to refer back to this section to determine whether you were able to meet these aims and objectives or not.

Now that you have covered the aims and objectives of your research, it’s time to learn about the significance of research.

Step4: Significance of the Research

Your introduction chapter must also include a section in which you justify how your research is going to add value to the scientific literature.

The purpose of this portion is to convince your supervisor that the research topic is worth investigating on and that the results of this investigation will actually be beneficial.

How to write the significance section?

Your significance section must include the following points:

  • checked How this research helps solve a problem
  • checked Fills a gap in the existing literature related to your research topic
  • checked Builds on the research that has already been done.

Here is how you write the “significance of your research” in a convincing manner.

Young people will determine the future of climate policy, so it is essential to gain an in-depth understanding of their engagement with this issue. While there has been much research on youth attitudes to climate change in general (Corner et al., 2015; Holmberg & Alvinius, 2019; Lee et al., 2020), none has focused specifically on how teenagers understand and respond to current UK climate policy. The increasing prominence of youth climate activism, both in the UK and across the world, suggests that teenagers are highly aware of the issues at stake. However, it is unclear to what extent they directly engage with government policies in this area. To fully understand the current state of climate politics, it is important to gain a more complete picture of young people’s knowledge and perceptions of UK climate policy.

Scope of the study

This heading informs the reader exactly what aspects of the problem will be covered in your research, what population will be targeted and why. Here is what must be included in this section:

  • checked The geographical area you are going to cover
  • checked The time period your research covers
  • checked Your target population.
  • checked What specific aspects of the problem your dissertation addresses

Step5: Outline of the Dissertation

Your introduction may also include an outline for your whole research paper. An outline, as the name implies, should have the main headings of the chapters to come.

The outline enlists the headings included in each chapter.

Here is an example of dissertation outline…

Chapter 1: Introduction

  • checked Intro
  • checked Issue & Its Background
  • checked Issue Statement
  • checked Research Purpose & Questions
  • checkedSignificance
  • checked Glossary of Terms (optional)
  • checked Limitations & Assumptions
  • checked Concluding paragraph

Chapter 2: Literature Review

  • checked Intro
  • checked Description of literature search
  • checked Framework
  • checked Review of Literature

Chapter 3: Methodology (Qualitative/Quantitative/Mixed)

  • checked Intro
  • checked Research Design
  • checked Research Hypotheses & Question
  • checked Setting/Sample & Population
  • checked Participants/Instrumentation
  • checked Data Collection
  • checked Data Analysis
  • checked Concluding section

Chapter 4: Findings

  • checked Intro
  • checked Findings
  • checked Conclusion

Chapter 5: Discussion and Suggestions for Further Research

  • checked Intro
  • checked Findings Summary
  • checked Conclusions
  • checked Discussion
  • checked Suggestions for Further Investigation
  • checked Final Conclusion Part

Things to be careful of and things to avoid

Now you know how to write a dissertation introduction. And that leads us to the next thing – which is to learn about some common mistakes that students tend to make while writing the introduction of their dissertation.


The take aways

  • checked Learned what a dissertation introduction is and why it is important to get right.
  • checked Learned how to write the five portions of the introduction in five easy steps.
  • checked Learned the things that should be avoided while writing the introduction chapter.

Now you know how to write a good dissertation introduction, close this tab and nail the introduction, so you can quickly move on the next chapter, which is the literature review.

Read more

Free presentation slides

If you are a course instructor willing to educate your class or a student who wants to learn then refer to our free presentation slides available for Google slides and Microsoft PowerPoint.

Meet Dr. Rafael

About Dr. Rafael

Hi, this is Dr. Rafal Lopez, Ph.D. in digital marketing from Loughborough University. I am a business research professional with over 15 publications in well-known business journals around the globe including “Journal of business research” and “Journal of Marketing”.

Contributing to the field of marketing through research is my passion and hence I have decided to write a series of blog posts to help marketing students understand the basic concepts of business research.