How to Write a Thesis Outline

Many students do not find interest in thesis writing and that’s why try to finish it in a hurry. Writing a thesis does not mean just rushing over words. It requires a complete plan and smart strategy to deal with the selected research topic.

Without a roadmap, you cannot proceed with your thesis. The thesis outline plays the role of the roadmap so that you can reach your destiny, i.e. the accomplishment of the degree – the ultimate academic success.

Here is the detailed guide about why making a thesis outline, beforehand, is important and how students can write it properly to manage their proceedings systematically.

Why Outlining a Thesis is Important

In the thesis outline, you mention in detail what and how you are going to do in your thesis, what approach you will follow, and what contributions your thesis would make to the subject. You can search for the thesis outline template online to get an idea of how your thesis outline is supposed to be written.

Outlining a thesis means you are planning your 6 months’ schedules because usually, the students have to write and submit their thesis in six months. Following are the major reasons why a thesis outline is important.

It Helps You Make a Schedule

The thesis outline shows you a picture of multiple steps that you need to take to efficiently get done with your thesis. In this way, it helps you make a schedule. This means you can divide your study hours to fulfill the determined steps and work on your thesis accordingly.

It Organizes Your Work

When you work according to what you have planned in the outline, your thesis automatically becomes organized. You will not have to roam around and look hither thither to decide what to do next. Your work will be organized and will help you move forward with a swift flow.

It Saves Your Time

The prewritten thesis paper outline helps you stay focused on the topic and doesn’t let you waste your time with irrelevant thoughts, ideas, and research. Therefore, you proceed with your work quickly that ultimately saving your time.

It Doesn’t Let You Forget Anything

When you plan your thesis according to the chapters and assemble it all in your thesis outline, it will help you remember each step. Also, you don’t miss the important points while writing your thesis if you mention and highlight them in the prewritten outline.

Essential Elements of a Thesis Outline

Whether you are planning to write a bachelor’s thesis outline or a master’s thesis outline, you must consider the factors that shape the way you do your work. Following are the most important elements that you must include in your thesis outline.

Thesis Statement

The problem statement provides the basis for your thesis. You must add it to your thesis outline. Form it as if you are writing a thesis statement outline and state what points you will raise in your problem statement. Also, tell how your research would deal with the proposed thesis statement. In some of the scientific thesis, the problem statement itself outlines the thesis.

Major Ideas

Clearly list out the major ideas that you have in your mind concerning the topic and the research. These ideas, later on, give birth to strong arguments when you start writing your thesis. Also, adding these ideas to the thesis outline helps you determine your secondary sources that can support your main argument.

The Research Questions

By including research questions in your thesis outline, you can choose your research methodology. Prewritten research questions will help you determine which research tools can get you the required answers.

The Proposed Research Methodology

While writing your undergraduate, master, or PhD thesis outline, you need to propose a suitable research methodology for your thesis. An outline must hold the research methods and tools that you are going to use to collect the facts, figures, and other information for your thesis.

The Determined Approach

Your thesis outline must follow a single approach to plan each chapter. You have to write your whole thesis under the approach that you use and mention in your thesis outline, so you must be conscious enough to select an appropriate approach, like chronological, thematic, and theoretical, etc.

Tips to Prepare a Thesis Outline

Planning and preparing a thesis outline has a lot of advantages as discussed above. You may look for a thesis outline example over the internet to have a better understanding of the task. However, here are some useful tips that should be considered while preparing the thesis outline.

Form a Comprehensive Problem Statement

Don’t forget to write a comprehensive problem statement in your thesis outline. It will help you carry out the relevant research give backing to your findings.

Write Your Aims & Objectives

Your thesis outline must contain the aims and objectives of your research as well as the thesis. When your goals are predetermined, it shows you a clear roadmap that you need to follow to achieve the goals.

Be Clear & Concise

Stay stick to the main points while writing your thesis outline. You don’t need to write details in the outline. You may use bullet pointers to prepare the outline for the whole thesis. Write your pan in a clear and concise way.

Stay Focused & Relevant

Do not go irrelevant both in terms of research and writing. Your points, arguments, research questions, and research methodology, each and everything you add to your thesis outline must be relevant and focused on your thesis topic.

Assemble All the Ideas

You need to write down all the ideas in your outline that you have in your mind concerning your thesis topic. When you note thesis ideas on paper, they provoke your thoughts and help you generate effective ways to insert them into your thesis.

List Your Arguments

In your thesis outline, you must list out the arguments that you want to highlight later your thesis. This will help you remember these arguments so that you can use them correctly at the right place when needed.

Take Online Assistance

You can take online assistance to get done with your thesis outline without a hassle. Several online thesis help services can help you in this regard. This would be a wise option as it will save your time and the thesis outline you will get from the professionals would be perfect by all means.

Final Note

This is the complete guide to writing a thesis outline. No matter if you have to write a bachelor’s, PhD, or master’s thesis outline, these tips, and other details will help you get done with your task efficiently and effectively.

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How to Write a Conclusion

All’s well that ends well; it is true for your academic projects as well. While it is important to start them right, it is equally important to end them right as well.
Let this blog guide you on how to write a conclusion. By following this guide you can write the kind of conclusion that leaves an ever-lasting impression on the mind of your reader.
Remember writing a conclusion can be a pain in the neck because not everyone has the skill to summarize a topic – that too something as long as a thesis. The primary focus of this blog is to be a professional thesis conclusion guide for every student.


It is the final part of any written assignment – the general purpose of the conclusion is to summarize the efforts and mention the key points of your assignment, essay, and dissertation.
Different academic projects have different academic requirements. BUT! One requirement that remains the same is to write a well-explained conclusion, either you are writing an essay conclusion or a thesis conclusion.

How exactly does the theoretical framework hold the structure of a theory? It does so by explaining the nature of the relationship between variables.

Significance of a conclusion

Underestimating the importance of a conclusion is like risking your marks. The conclusion is the last thing that a reader reads in your piece of writing so it should not be messed with. While, understanding the importance of the conclusion, nail the following points in your head:

  • checked It helps the reader in understanding how much your research has achieved its aims and objectives.
  • checked Every story needs closure so is your essay or a thesis.
  • checked It helps the other researchers to find a research gap for further research.
  • checkedConclusion and abstract are what grabs the attention of the reader to your essay or thesis.
  • checked Sums up your entire effort – it summarizes your findings and their implications.

Conclusion in a research paper

Now you have gotten a little bit of an idea about a conclusion; it is the perfect time to get into the details of a research conclusion.

How does it fit into your overall research project?

Its placement: It is the last chapter of the dissertation; hence it comes towards the end. However, it is not the last portion. The last portion of your thesis is the bibliography which comes after the conclusion.

Length: A typical thesis conclusion comprises 5-7% of your dissertation’s total word count.

Contribution to the Grade: how much the conclusion contributes to your dissertation grade depends upon your professor and institute, but this section has the potential to boost your grade or to drown it.

The time required: Since a dissertation conclusion only recaps and reflects on your efforts and does not require you to add any new information, it does not require much time and effort.

Steps to writing worthy qualified conclusions!

If you have read this far, you know that it is crucial to conclude your dissertation well. And now you want to learn how to make it perfect.
Don’t worry! It’s simple – at least it has been made simple by providing this guide.

Step1 – Answer your research question

The conclusion of a research paper always begins with the main research question that your study aimed to answer. This shows your supervisor that you have achieved your research objective by answering the research question. Hence, you should make sure that you state the answer to your research question clearly and concisely.

You do not have to restate all the results in this section. Rather, you have to compile and synthesize them in a manner that your evaluator can take away the key points from it.

A thesis set out to solve a practical might address the research problem like this:

Example: This research aimed to identify effective fundraising strategies for environmental non-profit organizations. Based on a quantitative and qualitative analysis of donation in response to campaign materials, it can be concluded that social distance and temporal distance are important factors to consider when designing and targeting campaigns. The results indicate that potential donors are more receptive to images portraying a large social distance and a small temporal distance.

Step2 – Summarize and reflect!

Once you have answered the research question, it’s time to reflect – you should briefly discuss your expectations while setting out to conduct this research and how close the actual results to those expectations are and why.


Be reflective, smartly describe your research purpose, evaluate and analyze the purpose.

If you haven’t mentioned the limitations in the discussion, this is your chance – do mention your research limitations in the conclusion. However, make sure not to make those limitations the focus of your conclusion.

Step3 – Make recommendations

After mentioning the limitations, answer this key question, “How your research adds value to the existing literature on the topic?” and, based on that, make recommendations.

State the implications of your findings and tell your supervisor what those findings mean for theory and the practical implications.

Make sure not to exaggerate the applicability of your study. And your recommendations should sound like suggestions and not imperatives.


Step4 – Bring emphasis to your contributions

You must utilize this section to emphasize the contributions of your research – the aim must be to leave your supervisor (or whoever is reading your research) with a strong impression. Emphasize how this research has contributed to the knowledge related to your topic (in particular) and the field of study (in general). You can accomplish that using the following strategies.

Remember this is not a step to have a discussion, this is a step to summarize and talk about your contributions.

Step5 – Prepare for a wrap party!

In the last step, you are done with your conclusion. Now, all you have to do is to perform the last following rituals of your research.

Most frequently asked conclusion questions

That depends on your professor and your university’s criteria. So you have to be aware of your university’s requirements. You might have to talk to your research supervisor to know exactly how much weightage of your dissertation is concentrated in the final chapter.

Discussion is the list of results and compares them with the existing literature. The purpose is to report.


The conclusion is all about synthesizing the results in the form of a final takeaway. The purpose is to reflect.

They are two different sections of a research paper and serve different purposes – they may be merged as one.

The conclusion is not always the last section – references and appendices come after the conclusion

The takeaway

A conclusion is the part of a dissertation that you have to get right. If you follow your professors’ guidelines and the information shared in this blog, you will nail the final chapter of your dissertation. Still, if you think you won’t be able to write a good conclusion due to any reason outsource the thesis conclusion is one of the reason but you can also take personalize consultancy from me through my LinkedIn Profile because it is important to end your dissertation well!

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About Dr. Sara Nathan

I am Dr. Sara Nathan and I have done a Ph.D. in aviation management. I have experience of 10 years in mentoring UK’s Students. Over this decade. I enjoy being able to help researchers all around the world as imparting valuable information has always been my passion. Writing & Reading are my passions. For detail about me and to read my other blog you can visit my profile:

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What is a theoretical framework? The study material for researcher Literature review

Research problems are not simple, and neither are their solutions
To find a solution to a research problem, there are several questions that you have to consider, and you must answer these questions while you are planning your research project out. Because if you leave them for later stages, you will lose direction and consequently lose your grade.

  • checked Which theory should you depend on?
  • checked What variables should you consider?
  • checked Should you rely on a single theory to solve your research problem, or you should consider multiple theories?

When you set out to develop a theoretical framework, you will find answers to all these questions.
If you look for a theoretical framework definition online, you will find a ton of information on it. Is that a good thing? Not when you are already confused.
But don’t worry; this blog will tell you all you need to know about the theoretical framework in a way that will clear your confusion and set your research in the right direction.

What is a theoretical framework?

The theoretical framework provides a structure that holds a theory by explaining the relationships between all the variables involved.
Theories explain certain phenomena and predict the outcomes of certain situations that have been researched. The structure that holds or supports a theory, is called the theoretical framework.
How exactly does the theoretical framework hold the structure of a theory? It does so by explaining the nature of the relationship between variables.

Importance of Theory

It is important to base your research on theory as it will guide you in the right direction and tell you exactly what to look for when answering your research questions.
Though you have to include a Theoretical framework in the literature review chapter of your research, it most often is not something that you can readily find within the literature. What that means is, you have to read the literature and understand the theories relevant to your research problem, determine what variables are involved in your research, and then come up with the theoretical framework.

How The Theoretical Framework Strengthens Research?

Theoretical framework is to strengthen your research. It does so in the following ways:

  • checked It lets the reader know the main theoretical assumptions hence allowing the reader to evaluate those assumptions.
  • checked It connects you to the existing knowledge, and based on the relevant theory, helps you develop hypotheses and guide you on what method to select to test your hypotheses.
  • checked A theoretical framework also specifies the key variables that influence a phenomenon under investigation.

Purpose of Theoretical Framework

Theories are the conceptual basis for understanding, analyzing, and designing ways to investigate relationships between variables. The purpose of the theoretical framework is to:

  • checked Help identify and define the research problems.
  • checked Help prescribe or evaluate the solutions to research problems.
  • checked Give old data new interpretations and new meaning.
  • checked Help identify new issues and prescribe the critical research questions that must be answered to maximize the understanding of the issue.

What makes up a theoretical framework?

Yes, a theoretical framework is derived from theory, but at the core of it, a theoretical framework is built upon variables.


A variable can be anything that you aim to measure and investigate in your research.

Types of variables based on the relationships

The variable that is influenced by a change in the independent variable is called the dependent variable.
The variable that you tweak to test its impact on the dependent variable.
It is both a dependent and an independent variable at the same time. The mediating variable is dependent on the independent variable, and it influences the dependent variable.
Confused? Don’t worry, mediation will be explained through an example later in this post.
Moderating variable explains the strength of the relationship between the dependent and the independent variable.
Interdependent Variables
When two variables are mutually dependent on one another, they are called interdependent variables.

Strategies for Developing the Theoretical Framework

Examine your title and research problem
Your research topic often mentions the variables you are going to investigate and so you can construct your theoretical framework based on your research title. If you choose to go for this strategy, you must also examine your research problem as it will guide you further in understanding the nature of relationships between variables.

Brainstorm key variables in your research

Determine what factors contribute to the presumed effect in your study.

Review related literature

Chances are, the problem you are researching has already been researched before. Reviewing the literature will help you find out how scholars have addressed your research problem.
Identify the assumptions from which the author(s) addressed the problem and base your theoretical framework on those assumptions.

List the constructs and variables

Categorize the variables in your study into dependent, independent, moderating, or mediating variables and break the variables down into their constructs to make them measurable.

Review the key social science theories

There must be multiple theories you have studied throughout your curriculum that promise to explain your research problem. Pick the theory that is the most relevant, and let that be the basis of your framework.
Note: You will still have to support your argument by reviewing the literature to justify your choice.

Presenting Your Theoretical Framework

Now, there are no set structure for presenting your theoretical framework, but the best way is to present it visually as it makes the complex ideas easy to understand. You might need a theoretical framework example to learn more about presenting your framework the right way.

Presenting moderating variable


In this example, hours of study impact a student’s exam score, and IQ moderates this relationship – it determines how strong the impact of study hours will be on the exam score.

Demonstrating the mediation effect


In the above example, Hours of study impact the exam score of a student, and the number of practice problems completed mediates this relationship – it is dependent on hours of study, and the exam score is dependent on it.

Presenting interdependent variables


Come on, do I even have to explain this? Well, it simply means that the hours of study impact a student’s exam score.

Presenting interdependent variables


In this example, the variables fashion consciousness and materialism both impact each other.

Note: In addition to visually presenting the relationship between variables you must also explain the variables and the relationships between them.

Dos and Don’ts While Developing A Theoretical Framework


Concluding Thoughts

Now that you know the role of the Theoretical framework in the thesis and how to go about it, you can be sure that your research project will take the right direction!

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About Brianna Zack

What’s better than utilizing your hobby? Trust me, nothing. Greetings! I am Brianna zack, a writer by birth and by profession. I am an MBA graduate in Business and I have been sharing my views and thoughts with others for the past 5 years. My career started as a professor in a business school. During the time when I was a teacher, I also use to write blogs related to academic writing which afterwards became my full-time profession.

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Quantitative vs Qualitative Data A guide for a researchers

“The relationship between crime statistics and immigration”

This is just another example of a research topic. Do you know what kind of data is required for this particular topic? If not, then find the answer to this question at the end of this blog.

What Is Research Data?

Research data is information that has been collected or observed to test the research hypothesis. Data has to be authentic and reliable in order to conduct a successful and quality research, unreliable data will lead to compromised results. Data can be primary or secondary depending on the requirement of the research that is being conducted.

To select the right type of data that is needed for your study qualitative and quantitative difference. Should be understood. It is also crucial to note that your topic choice leads you to selecting the right data type for your research. A topic that aims to test impact of a certain variable over the other will always be quantitative likewise a topic that aims to analyze a certain variable will be qualitative.

Quantitative vs Qualitative Data

Quantitative data is part of quantitative research. Quantitative research is the use of numbers to collect and present data. For quantitative data the topic should include words like “impact”, “functional relation” and “Effect of” etc. An example of a quantitative topic could be

To Assess The Impact Of Social Media Marketing On Improving Brand
Awareness In Organizations In Uk”

Qualitative data is based on non-quantifiable elements, it’s more concerned with observations and descriptions. The topic can include terms like “analyze”, “State” and “Understanding” etc. An example of qualitative topic could be

“An Assessment About The Internal Brand Management In Relation To The Issue Of Communication In Employee Engagement – A Case Study Of Pakistan Telecom Industry”

Here’s a chart to help differentiate between quantitative research methods and qualitative research methods:


Research philosophy

This defines how you gather, analyze and use the data for your particular research.
In quantitative research we use positivism which tests cause and effect relation whereas in qualitative interpretivism is used which does not test cause and effect relation, it provides the reader with detailed understanding of the topic with different point of views.

Research approach

Deductive approach tests an existing theory and inductive approach helps develop a new theory. In qualitative research inductive approach is followed as qualitative study is for new and innovative topics therefore little to no literature exists. Whereas in quantitative study a theory is tested therefore deductive approach is followed.

Research design

Exploratory research design studies research questions and leaves a gap for further studies on that topic whereas conclusive research design, tests and provides findings for the study and concludes the study. In quantitative research both these approaches can be followed however in qualitative only an exploratory design is implemented.

Data Analysis

To test and analyze the data quantitative study requires to run statistical tests these can include testing the reliability and validity of variables, testing the impact on variables on each other through regression. In qualitative data is analyzed through different methods these include

  • checked Thematic Analysis: This is when data is grouped into themes based on their similarities.
  • checked Content Analysis: This is when you can identify patterns through the provided data.
  • checked Discourse Analysis: This is when you analyze the language, speech or debate. This is mostly conducted to understand cultures.

Depending on your topic and guidelines each of the two, or a mixed data collection method, can be used.

Mixed Data

Mixed data is used when quantitative and qualitative both methods are used in a research. Your topic identifies the research type. In a mixed research a topic could be

“To Analyse The Impact Of Plain Folk Advertising Techniques On Family Shopping
Behaviour Of Consumers: A Case Of Asda Uk”

Here the topic talks about both analysis and impact therefore it is important that a mixed research method is followed. This could be collection of surveys and also taking interviews to test the results of those surveys or vice versa. In a mixed approach data collection methods of quantitative and qualitative are combined.


Data Collection Methods

Just like qualitative and quantitative data can differ so can their methods. Quantitative data collection methods include objective measurements and statistical data analysis. This mostly revolves around numbers and quantifiable data. Quantitative data collection methods include surveys and experiments.

Qualitative data collection methods include observational measurement and visual analysis and mostly depends on non-quantifiable elements. Qualitative data collection methods include interviews with open ended questions and focus groups.

What data type you should use?

Choosing a research method and data type solely depends on the guidelines and requirements you have been provided with from your institute. If your institution requires you to study “the effect of prices on brand switching behavior” you will have to opt for a quantitative study to test the impact of prices on switching behavior and to test the dependency of switching behavior on prices.

When to use quantitative data?

Quantitative data should be used when a researcher is trying to quantify an issue, like we discussed in the example above. The effect on prices on brand switching behavior needs to be quantified.

When to use qualitative data?

Qualitative data should be used when a hypothesis is being developed for further testing or when non-quantifiable factors like emotions and feelings have to be tested.

Sample Data


Dos and Don’ts

Here are some dos and don’ts to follow while collecting data.


Now that we have all relevant information we can figure out what data type is required for the topic we initially discussed. Were you able to figure it out? Since we are talking about a relationship between two variables we will have to test their impact and dependency on each other therefore making it a quantitative research. Since it’s a quantitative research quantitative data will be gathered and analyzed.

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About Dr. Sara Nathan

I am Dr. Sara Nathan and I have done a Ph.D. in aviation management. I have experience of 10 years in mentoring UK’s Students. Over this decade. I enjoy being able to help researchers all around the world as imparting valuable information has always been my passion. Writing & Reading are my passions. For detail about me and to read my other blog you can visit my profile:

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How to write a systematic literature review with examples from a TDH expert.

Before performing any research, the first thing you do to get the ball rolling is EXTRACTING THE DATA off the internet about your topic. The research you are about to perform is based on the data you have extracted earlier.

One of the best professional dissertation writers believes that a student’s foremost mistake in research is when writing a literature review. And when the students are opting for the systematic literature review, their chance to get lost in the vast amount of data is greatly minimized. Specifically, the systematic literature review is the correct option to get the information when conducting the secondary research.

What is a systematic review?

“A systematic review states the clear objective of your research. It includes all the shreds of evidence that support your research questions.”

A systematic literature review aims to study and critically analyze the data for a formatted research question. Thus, a systematic literature review is thorough and transparent research conducted over all the shaded or grey data on the internet to be reviewed and replicated by other researchers.

A systematic literature review must be;


How to know if a systematic literature review is a suitable option for you?

Well, there are some attributes that you should consider when you are opting for a systematic literature review;

  • checked If you wish to gather and study analysis on a particular topic, SLR is the right option.
  • checked If you have more than two people to research with you, then SLR is the right option for you as it is an extensive method.
  • checked If you have a year or more to submit your research, you should go for a systematic review.
  • checked If you have a well-defined research question on which you are willing to do Meta-analysis, then a systematic literature review is the ultimate option for you.

Steps for writing a systematic literature review

With assistance from our PhD dissertation proposal writing experts, the following are the steps of writing a successful systematic literature review.

Let’s learn about the unique steps in a systematic review.

Step1: Formulate a Research question

This step is to develop the research question or gap that can be further studied. A well-structured systematic literature review must begin with a well-structured question as well. It provides a boundary to your research which ultimately narrows down your focus to related information. The research question may follow the PICOS framework, according to which your question must be designed with strength to answer the following aspects;

Formulate a Research question

Example: Violent games initiate hyperactivity in the kids.

Step2: Identify your research question

In this step, you will have to identify your research question. Then, make decisions here about what to study within the niche areas. You will also need to identify the top researchers whose work you are likely to read. Finally, remember the criteria to set your research question so that it can encounter a bigger picture.

Example: If you are studying the effects of violent games, you will target gamers, explore technology, and by doing so will help you identify your research question.

Step3: Define eligibility criteria 

Defining eligibility criteria means that you are setting boundaries to include or exclude the studies in your research. Abundant information is available on the internet, so you limit what you research to account for your input.

After you have set the criteria, make sure you stick to that to ensure the exclusion part of the research does not get involved. The study’s outcomes can not be part of the criteria, but some reviews set eligibility in such a way to get a specific outcome.  You have all the freedom on this step, and you can always set criteria based on your convenience.

Example: To know about the negative impacts of violent games, you would not want to include the opinion of those gamers whose bread and butter runs on playing violent games.

Step4: Develop a research protocol 

Before developing a research protocol, it is better to know what a research protocol is. A research protocol is creating a document containing the outline of your research, what questions will be answered, the description of your objectives search strategy, and the eligibility criteria you are looking forward to adopting in your review. Even if you have looked for a systematic review methodology example off the internet, you can share those methodologies in your protocol. If you face trouble setting the methods, you can learn from the systematic review methodology example

Step5: Conduct literature search

You have given yourself the map to research in the previous step; it is time to follow the lines. You must identify the studies to read the relevant and precise data. The more you read on your research, the harder it would get for you to control. You can expect yourself to get a large number of data depending on the scope of your topic, so you must know about the several techniques to conduct a quality literature search;

  • checked Databased search
  • checked Identifying the search terms
  • checked A thorough reading of specialized journals.
  • checked You may coordinate with the respective experts that are working in the field.
  • checked Make sure to read the grey literature related to your topic.

Example: The search terms to help you get the relevant data would be gaming related, technology-related, etc.

Step6: Select studies per protocol

This step instead calls for teamwork to ignore biasness. Upon conducting the literature search, you have now access to a good amount of information. So, now it is time to analyze the data and check if that information is eligible enough to be included in your research. For this step, you may divide the among the two or three participants and then start studying the literature with the following techniques;

  • checked Study the abstracts first as they are the nectar of the whole research, so you can fathom if that particular research is proper for you or not.
  • checked It would be best if you make the final decision on study inclusion.
  • checked Try to get the full text of your relevant studies so you can examine them to determine eligibility.
  • checked Once you are done with it, you should keep track of why you have omitted some studies, just for future reference.

Step7: Appraise studies per protocol

Ensure to check and balance if the studies you have selected for your research are based upon the research protocol you have made earlier. This step is to ensure that the conclusion of the studies is not biased.

Step8: Extract data

Now that you have selected the relevant studies, it is time to extract the data from those particular studies. At least two of the members of your research team should be bound to extract the data from those studies independently; they should now be making notes about the methodologies, hypothesis, discussion and results of relevant search studies. The data should be in the right, balanced amount as extracting too much and too little data can lead to oversight of essential results.

Step9: Access the quality of evidence and present results

This step is to analyze the pieces of evidence to interpret the results.  By accessing the quality of your studies, you give strength to the evidence provided in your systematic review. You can even set specific criteria for the quality assessment of your review.  It can have the following attributes;

  • checked How much it supports the objective of your research?
  • checked Calculate the ratio of biasness in your result.
  • checked How much generalizability does your research solutions have?
  • checked What is the quality of reporting?

Dos and Don’ts


By following the above systematic literature reveiew steps, I am sure you can write a systematic review without hiring any systematic literature review services. And feel free to share this blog with anyone looking for systematic literature review help as it enunciates all the technicalities of an SLR.

Good Luck!

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How To Write An Annotated Bibliography

“…and don’t forget to add annotated bibliography to your assignments.” These dreadful words were uttered at the last minute of our research session, with no time left to ask any questions I stood numb for a minute only so that my brain could accept and understand all the information that was communicated.
After tremendous requests we were granted a separate session on annotation bibliography only to realize it’s not as confusing as it sounds.

What Is An Annotated Bibliography?

Annotation means to explain something, annotated bibliography is explaining or commenting on the sources that you provided. It summarizes your citations in order to make it easier for your readers to understand the relevance of your sources. This is when you mention a citation and then to briefly describe the study you provide information about the author, mention the year of the study and state what the study is about. One of the best assignment writing services endorse that Annotated Bibliography saves the readers’ time and helps them understand the importance of each mentioned source in one go rather than looking up each one of them.
Here’s an example to help understand the concept:

Example: Sarkar, S. (2007). Potential of kefir as a dietetic beverage: a review. British Food Journal, 109(4), 280-290.
Sarkar (2007) examined the literature in order to determine the nutritional characteristics of kefir, as well as its potential to offer positive health benefits.

Purpose Of An Annotated Bibliography


Questions To Consider In Annotations


Contents Of An Annotated Bibliography

Annotated bibliography begins with references, followed by their description. Annotated bibliography is always numbered and arranged in alphabetical order. Annotated bibliography should include the following content:

  • checked Proper citation.
  • checked Background of the authors.
  • checked Outline the main argument, audience and scope of the text.
  • checked Summarize the main argument.
  • checked Clarify the methodology of the research.
  • checked Conclude what has been presented in the research.
  • checked Discuss how the citation is relevant for your work.

How To Write An Annotated Bibliography

Writing an annotated bibliography becomes easier if you organize your sources properly. Organizing references and keeping track of your citations is very important. Here’s a step by step guide for writing annotated bibliography.

Step1: Analysis of Sources

Proving your source’s credibility is important therefore you have to consider your author’s qualifications, to understand the author’s reliability. Moreover the credibility of the journal also holds importance. An unknown journal will not be credible and would not be a good enough source to cite. Using weak citations will not only impact your research’s authenticity but also your grade. One of the best dissertation writers of UK advised that your source should be recent, a very old source loses its credibility and becomes obsolete therefore keep in mind that all the sources you cite are from the past 5 years unless you are required to cite older sources.

Step2: Create Your Annotations

Annotations can be of four different types, here are the following:

Step3: Annotated Bibliography Format 

Writing style of annotations can change according to the citation format that you are required to follow in your assignment. Here are three common formatting styles and how to write annotated bibliography in each.


APA Style demands reference entry and annotation to be double spaced and left aligned. The annotation follows the reference in the next line. Citations are automatically formatted in APA citation generator when you download the bibliography.

Example: Taylor, Monica And Mal Leicester. Ethics, Ethnicity And Education. Bristol, Pa: Taylor
And Francis, 1992. This Book Is An Important And Inherently Controversial Collection Of Papers That Discusses The Major Moral Issues In Multicultural School Education. Topics Discussed Include The Ethical Aspects Of The Separate Schools Debate, Strategies For Establishing A Democratic School And Preparing Teachers To Be More Moral Educators, And Consideration Of The Values Implicitly Antiracist/ Multicultural Education.


In MLA style, the reference and the annotation are both double-spaced and left-aligned.
The annotation itself is indented 1 inch. If there are two or more paragraphs in the annotation, the first line of each paragraph is indented an additional half-inch, but not if there is only one paragraph.
Your citations will be properly formatted if you are using MLA Citation generator.

Example: Gurko, Leo. Ernest Hemingway And The Pursuit Of Heroism. New York: Crowell, 1968. This Book Is Part Of A Series Called “twentieth Century American Writers”: A Brief Introduction To The Man And His Work. After Fifty Pages Of
Straight Biography, Gurko Discussed Hemingway’s Writing, Novel By Novel. There’s An Index And A Short Bibliography, But No Notes. The Biographical Part Is Clear And Easy To Read, But It Sounds Too Much Like A Summary.


In Chicago style, the entry should be single-spaced and have a hanging indent. The annotation should be indented, double-spaced, and left-aligned.

Example: Kenny, Anthony. A New History Of Western Philosophy: In Four Parts. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Broad History Of Western Philosophy From The Ancient Greeks To The Present Day. Divided Into Four Periods ancient, Medieval, Early Modern, And Modern each Section Begins With A Chronological Overview Of The Key Thinkers, Followed By Chapters Dedicated To Each Significant Subfield In The Period: Metaphysics, Political Philosophy, God, Etc. Kenny Generally Provides Thorough And Fair Assessments Of The Major Philosophers’ Work, But Is Pointedly Dismissive Of Derrida And Other Critical Theorists, Significantly Weakening The Book’s Coverage Of “postmodern” Philosophy

Comparison Between Formats

Double spaced Double spaced reference Single spaced reference
Left aligned Left aligned Indented heading
Annotations follow in the next line after reference Single spaced annotations Double spaced and left aligned annotation

Dos and Don’ts

Now that we have clarified what annotations are here’s a dos and don’ts checklist for further help.


This is everything that you need to know about annotations, I hope this blog was able to help you understand that annotations are not as scary as you might have thought they were.

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How to write perfect dissertation Introduction- A complete solution in just 5 steps (with Examples)

In order to complete any professional degree, you have to submit a dissertation. If you don’t already know, a dissertation is a research project and it is usually divided into five to seven chapters depending upon the university’s preferred practice. Regardless of the number of chapters you have to write, the “introduction” is always going to be the first chapter.

What is Dissertation Introduction?

The introduction is the very first chapter of your dissertation. The introduction helps your professors get the idea about the topic, the research problem, and the scope of the study. It also gives your supervisors a little background of the topic, its importance and the main objectives of your research.

You should know how to write an introduction for a dissertation in a way that will leave your evaluators impressed – which is the key to scoring a good grade in your thesis.

This blog will help you do exactly that – it will equip with all information and knowledge necessary to give your dissertation the start that it deserves by telling you what to include in a dissertation introduction and how to go about it.

The purpose of introduction

The main purpose of the introduction chapter is to set the stage for your research and set your readers (which most likely are going to be your supervisor and evaluator) up for what is to come.

Why you need to get the introduction right?

Getting your introduction right is important because it helps form the right first impression on your evaluator. Yes, the right first impression does improve your chances of getting an A.

On the contrary, if you do a sloppy job in the introduction chapter, you are putting your grade at risk.

Steps to write a perfect introduction

Your introduction must include the following sections:

Steps to write a perfect introduction

This may seem too much. But don’t worry! This blog will explain, step-by-step, how to write each of these sections and what to cover in each of these headings of the “introduction” chapter of your thesis.

Step1: Research Background

The background informs the supervisor why the topic of your research is important.

The introduction of your research paper must start with the research background. Constructing the background research will not only help you understand the topic, but will also help your professors learn about the research problem and justify importance of your research.

How to write the research background?

While writing your research background, you must touch upon the important concepts related to your research topic. This will help create the right impression on your evaluators and they will know that you have thoroughly investigated the research problem and have understood all the aspects of your topic.

Here is an example of a well-written research background

For any organization that desires to thrives, change cannot be avoided. However, managing change and especially transformational change is always tough and challenging (Sirkin et al., 2005). A number of studies highlight that the majority of organizations introducing change initiatives fail to achieve the intended results (Kotter, 1996; Strebel, 1996). There is a consensus among management scholars and practitioners that the ability of an organization to adapt to and manage the process of change is crucial to its effectiveness (Brisson-Banks, 2010; Bridges and Michel, 2000).

Step2: Research Problem

The problem your research aims to solve must be clearly defined – though the background section and the portion in which you convince your professors of the significance of your research will touch on the research problem, this portion will present the problem statement.

The problem statement tells the evaluator why you are conducting this research and what purpose it will serve.

How to write a problem statement?

You must write your research problem in a clear and concise manner that will help your evaluators understand the purpose of your choosing a particular research topic and also give them the idea about what they should expect from your research.

If you want to persuade your professors to read other parts of your research paper (which by all means, you should, because you put a lot of effort into your research) you have to present the research problem in a convincing manner.

Problem statement holds the core importance in your dissertation because it lets the reader know the following key things:

  • checked The direction your investigation is going to proceed in.
  • checked The areas that your study will cover.

Here is what a problem statement looks like…

Non-profit organization X has been focused on retaining its existing support base, but lacks understanding of how best to target potential new donors. To be able to continue its work, the organization requires research into more effective fundraising strategies.

Step3: Aims and Objectives 

Once you are done with the research problem, you have to tell how you are going to solve the problem. That, you are going to do, by listing the aims and objectives of your research.

Aims and objectives are the statements that inform your supervisor of the results that your research is going to yield.

How to write the aims and objectives?

You have to derive the aims and objectives from your topic, research question or hypothesis. These are in fact, an extension of your research questions.

The statements you use to convey aims and objectives of your research should clearly communicate to the supervisors, your research intentions and also help them understand how you plan to answer the research question.

Here is an example of an objective statement derived from a research question…

Consider this research question: What is the impact of price on the demand of luxury goods?

Now, an objective statement derived from research question will look like: To study the impact of price on the demand of luxury goods.


Before moving on to the next portion, there are a few things you need to keep in mind about the aims and objectives:

  • checked Usually these statements start with phrases like, ‘to determine’, ‘to investigate’, ‘to assess’, ‘to critically assess’, ‘to understand’, ‘to evaluate’ etc.
  • checked The statements you use to communicate the aims and objectives must be brief, concise and relevant.
  • checked In the conclusion of your research, you will have to refer back to this section to determine whether you were able to meet these aims and objectives or not.

Now that you have covered the aims and objectives of your research, it’s time to learn about the significance of research.

Step4: Significance of the Research

Your introduction chapter must also include a section in which you justify how your research is going to add value to the scientific literature.

The purpose of this portion is to convince your supervisor that the research topic is worth investigating on and that the results of this investigation will actually be beneficial.

How to write the significance section?

Your significance section must include the following points:

  • checked How this research helps solve a problem
  • checked Fills a gap in the existing literature related to your research topic
  • checked Builds on the research that has already been done.

Here is how you write the “significance of your research” in a convincing manner.

Young people will determine the future of climate policy, so it is essential to gain an in-depth understanding of their engagement with this issue. While there has been much research on youth attitudes to climate change in general (Corner et al., 2015; Holmberg & Alvinius, 2019; Lee et al., 2020), none has focused specifically on how teenagers understand and respond to current UK climate policy. The increasing prominence of youth climate activism, both in the UK and across the world, suggests that teenagers are highly aware of the issues at stake. However, it is unclear to what extent they directly engage with government policies in this area. To fully understand the current state of climate politics, it is important to gain a more complete picture of young people’s knowledge and perceptions of UK climate policy.

Scope of the study

This heading informs the reader exactly what aspects of the problem will be covered in your research, what population will be targeted and why. Here is what must be included in this section:

  • checked The geographical area you are going to cover
  • checked The time period your research covers
  • checked Your target population.
  • checked What specific aspects of the problem your dissertation addresses

Step5: Outline of the Dissertation

Your introduction may also include an outline for your whole research paper. An outline, as the name implies, should have the main headings of the chapters to come.

The outline enlists the headings included in each chapter.

Here is an example of dissertation outline…

Chapter 1: Introduction

  • checked Intro
  • checked Issue & Its Background
  • checked Issue Statement
  • checked Research Purpose & Questions
  • checkedSignificance
  • checked Glossary of Terms (optional)
  • checked Limitations & Assumptions
  • checked Concluding paragraph

Chapter 2: Literature Review

  • checked Intro
  • checked Description of literature search
  • checked Framework
  • checked Review of Literature

Chapter 3: Methodology (Qualitative/Quantitative/Mixed)

  • checked Intro
  • checked Research Design
  • checked Research Hypotheses & Question
  • checked Setting/Sample & Population
  • checked Participants/Instrumentation
  • checked Data Collection
  • checked Data Analysis
  • checked Concluding section

Chapter 4: Findings

  • checked Intro
  • checked Findings
  • checked Conclusion

Chapter 5: Discussion and Suggestions for Further Research

  • checked Intro
  • checked Findings Summary
  • checked Conclusions
  • checked Discussion
  • checked Suggestions for Further Investigation
  • checked Final Conclusion Part

Things to be careful of and things to avoid

Now you know how to write a dissertation introduction. And that leads us to the next thing – which is to learn about some common mistakes that students tend to make while writing the introduction of their dissertation.


The take aways

  • checked Learned what a dissertation introduction is and why it is important to get right.
  • checked Learned how to write the five portions of the introduction in five easy steps.
  • checked Learned the things that should be avoided while writing the introduction chapter.

Now you know how to write a good dissertation introduction, close this tab and nail the introduction, so you can quickly move on the next chapter, which is the literature review.

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Meet Dr. Rafael

About Dr. Rafael

Hi, this is Dr. Rafal Lopez, Ph.D. in digital marketing from Loughborough University. I am a business research professional with over 15 publications in well-known business journals around the globe including “Journal of business research” and “Journal of Marketing”.

Contributing to the field of marketing through research is my passion and hence I have decided to write a series of blog posts to help marketing students understand the basic concepts of business research.

How to write an Abstract?

LAST BUT NOT THE LEAST!  Just when you thought you are done and dusted with your dissertation, you are reminded of yet another horror story of your dissertation. It’s without any doubt the point when you have to write an abstract for your research.

Abstract writing can be as easy as squeezing a lemon IF ONLY, you have learned about all the techniques.

What is an abstract?

“An abstract is clear and concise knowledge about the broad and huge dissertation or reports”

The given abstract definition depicts that abstract is all about breaking down the bigger knowledge that gives the overview of your dissertation. In a nutshell, to write an abstract is, to sum up, the detailing of your research.

There are mainly two kinds of abstract; Informative abstract & Descriptive abstract.

kinds of Abstract

The kind of abstract you want to write, solely depends on the nature of your dissertation. So, before even starting to write an abstract, know about the specifics of your dissertation.

What is the ultimate importance to write an abstract?

“To acknowledge the reader about the relevancy of your research for their own research”

One of the main purposes to write the abstract is to save the time of the reader because the abstract is the nectar of your whole research. By reading an abstract, a reader can know about the objectives and results of the research which helps him to decide if it is worthy of reading or not. It saves the time of the reader, and it also helps you in capturing the right readers for your research. You can call every piece of writing, an abstract that is giving you a sneak peek of what you are about to read.

When you are writing an abstract it could be written for many purposes, you could write;

  • checked Abstract for a dissertation or a research paper,
  • checked Abstract for a lab report or reports in general,
  • checked Abstract for academic assignments.

When to write an abstract?

The abstract is written when you are done with your research. BUT it comes after the title page and acknowledgements, and before the table of contents of your research. You can say that the abstract is the first impression of your whole research. It is rather the uniqueness of an abstract that you write it in the end but it comes in the beginning. The word limit an abstract may varies, depending on the requirement of your university, but the standard limit ranges from 150 to 300.

Contents to consider while writing an abstract

Writing an abstract has its delicacies that demand to be taken care of. Students must know about the following contents of an abstract if they aim to master the art of abstract writing.
A well-written abstract must include the following aspects or contents of the research.

content of the search

Aims & Objectives 

The essential thing to discuss in your abstract is the aims and objectives of your research. In the first paragraph of your abstract, make sure you state the problems of your research and how your research aims to respond to those problems.

Example: You are conducting research on the topic “Difference of rate of employment in graduate and undergraduate students” So, in your abstract, you will discuss the objectives of your research that is to study the rate of employment among graduate and undergraduate students and your aim would probably to find out about the reasons that explain that difference.

You may use words like investigating, search, analyze, and test, etc. Because these are the alternative words that tell about the directions your research is headed to.

The speech must be in past or present tenses, and not at all in future tenses as you have conducted the research.


This section where you give information about the methods used in your research is supposed to be the shortest. After discussing the aims and objectives, you will now discuss the approach and methods you have used to justify your arguments or to find the solutions of your research problems.

Try to discuss the methods in less than five lines, make it as uncomplicated as you could. Make sure the tenses you used to explain the methodology of your research are in the past form, only as you have applied those methods in your research, already.

Example: The methods used in our research to find the reasons behind the difference in the rate of employment among graduates and undergraduates, are qualitative for which we have conducted surveys and interviews with 50 students, least.


To be honest, this is my favorite content in the abstract. In this section, you will discuss the response of your audience or what reasons you have found behind your problem statement. You may only discuss the main result that supports your conclusion the best. You can skip sharing about the whole results of your research BECAUSE by sharing about the whole results, you will overflow information in your abstract. You should only discuss the key results or arguments of your research.
The speech used, to discuss the results of your research can be in past and present tenses, and not at all in future tenses as you have conducted research that had to lead you to your desired results.
You may use the words like outcomes, effects, causes or analyzed, and figured, etc.
For example; this research has analyzed that one of the main reason undergraduate still manage to find employment is that they have mastered a skill that they cash out.


At long last, you will share the answers to your questions or solutions to your problems.
You will conclude the whole research for your reader in a way that they get familiar with the purpose of your whole research. Conclusions can be written in the present future tenses. It is the case of a rarity if you write your conclusion in past tenses.

Example: We concluded that sometimes a degree alone is not enough to get employment, you have to have some soft skills along with it.
If the purpose of your research was to find the solutions to certain problems or issues, you can use the future tenses to recommend some actions. By doing so, you will earn the trust of your reader.

That was really all the basic things to consider when writing an abstract.

BUT wait, there is more to it.

Bonus tips to write an abstract!

Other than the above contents of an abstract, there are some more tips as well that can help you in writing a quality abstract.

Inspire from other abstracts

Just like we learn from other’s mistakes, we can learn a lot from other successes as well. Read the other abstracts available online that may or may not relate to your research topic. The ultimate purpose to do this is to acknowledge yourself with all the edges of an abstract.

Quality of words over quantity of words

An abstract should be clear and concise. The selection of sentences must be qualitative and not quantitative. Be as straightforward as you could. Ignore double contextual sentences as much as you can.

Take care of the formatting

The formatting is the tricky part when writing an abstract. Therefore, make sure you format your abstract correctly. Otherwise, your reader would lose its interest in your research in a blink.

Citations for the abstract is not required

The abstract is 100% original work. It is self-maintained, thus it does not need any citation.

Let’s Look At The Proper Example Of An Abstract!

Topic: The reasons why Nigeria ranks amongst the countries with highest infant mortality rate

One of the most terrifying things parents could ever experience is leaving their sleeping infant on the bed and return a few hours later to find him not breathing.
State the problem first
Sadly, this happens with many parents in Nigeria. Infant mortality rate means the number of infant deaths in a single year out of every 1,000 live births, which is one of the most notable indicators of social development in any country. As Nigeria is one of the most perilous countries for newborns.Give the background pertaining to your problem statement.
This research helps to determine and quantify the reasons which leads our country towards high infant mortality rate with the purpose to increase knowledge and awareness among people about the identification of reasons behind infants mortality and to increase the lowest life expectancy ratio of Nigeria as it is the dejected significant national issue which needs to receive serious attention.
Objective of the research: Stating the aims and objectives of your research
The methodology of our research includes both primary and secondary data. The secondary data was collected by consultation of literature in the libraries, already made researches, Internet and also from the report or material printed by UNICEF. For gathering primary data our research method was quantitative which includes close-ended questionnaire as a main methodological approach which we made online the samples were not highly specified as we aimed to spread awareness between people and check their responses so we asked people from every profession to show their opinions by agreeing or disagreeing the statements which we had mentioned in our questionnaire and mostly the responders were doctors specifically gynecologist and child specialist. We also had interviewed some midwives and birth attendants to know about the health status of mothers who came to them for their assistance.
Methodology: Discuss about the methodology of your research in such a way that it explains about all the data gathering tools as well.
Our research questions include; what are the socioeconomic reasons for infant mortality in Nigeria? What are the significance and importance of each reason? How many people are aware of the infant mortality rate?
The quantitative data collected from the questionnaire indicates the findings that to reduce infant mortality, urgent measures should be taken in the country. There is an ignorance of birth spacing and related vaccinations linked with delivery. The scarcity of trained health workers should be fulfilled. And education on maternal precautions should be given to mothers.
Results and conclusion

DO’s And Don’ts!!


The be-all and end-all!

You have reached the end of this guideline! Hope it fulfills the purpose of learning to you. And remember one thing;

Research is your cup of tea, you can have it the way you want it!

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What is Plagiarism? How to avoid it? Tips & tricks from the EXPERT

“Text similarity is only acceptable below 10%.”

This sentence often baffles students writing researches for the first time.
I remember students used to line up outside my office the day after I shared their research guidelines with them only to ask “What is a similarity index?”, “If we don’t copy the literature how will we prove our research’s credibility?” In my 10 years as a research supervisor the question of what exactly plagiarism is has never left me alone. So here’s a detailed explanation and some tricks to help you stay away from plagiarism.

Plagiarism, to put simply, is when you copy someone else’s work and do not give them credit for it. To prove your research’s credibility and to present a strong study researchers need to refer to previous literature however it is critical to provide due references and credit other authors. Similarity index of your study can vary depending on your field and institution, usually similarity index is acceptable below 10% however in fields like medical and law the similarity index can go up to 20%.

Why Does Plagiarism Matter?

Imagine you come up with a ground-breaking theory that can possibly change the dynamics of your field and someone else steals your idea, starts telling the world about it without crediting you. IT’S A FRAUD! Similar is the case with research, every idea that is presented is much like a ground-breaking theory it adds to the existing studies of that topic and even that particular field therefore not citing any author’s work is considered academic dishonesty and is frowned upon. Plagiarism is a breach of discipline and depending on your institution there can be serious consequences of plagiarising.

To sum it up, here’s why you should consider citing:

  1. Citing adds credibility to your research.
    Yes, citing makes your study stronger but that does not mean you have to copy what other authors write. Paraphrase the information and give the authors their due credit.
  2. Allows readers to locate your sources. A well cited paper helps readers in identifying what sources you used and helps them go back to those papers to understand the studies better. Making it easier for readers to track down the research and judge the relevance and accuracy of your paper.
  3. Helps omit PlagiarismThere can be serious consequences of Plagiarism, as a student you can fail your course and as an academic writer it can taint your reputation and career. You could also be held legally accountable for plagiarising.

What happens if you Plagiarize?

Mr. Mark was a very well reputed PhD professor. He executed a dissertation on global economics however more than 70% of his work was plagiarized. Mr. Mark, as a result, was laid off due to academic misconduct. Plagiarism cost him not just his job but also scarred his reputation, he was banned from several well reputed journals.

Plagiarism has unchangeable effects not only on your research but also on you. It can taint your professional and academic reputation.
Authors can get banned from publishing their research, most journals reject authors with plagiarized content.
Plagiarized content can also lead to funding bodies rejecting your proposal. Other than that, plagiarism can lead to legal issues.

Plagiarism is not limited to research writing, your college professor may also have strict anti plagiarism rules for essays, exams and assignments. This is to train you for academic writing and reading.

Types Of Plagiarism

Direct Plagiarism

This is also known as copy and paste plagiarism. This is when you copy someone’s work from a particular source without giving them credit.

Example: All marketing strategy is built on STP : Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning. A company discovers different needs and groups in the marketplace, targets those needs and groups that it can satisfy in a superior way, and then positions its offering so that the target market recognizes the company’s distinctive offering and image.
(Philip Kotler and Kevin Lane Keller)

Plagiarized: All marketing strategy is built on STP : Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning. A company discovers different needs and groups in the marketplace, targets those needs and groups that it can satisfy in a superior way, and then positions its offering so that the target market recognizes the company’s distinctive offering and image.

The correct way: Marketing strategies are formed on segmentation, targeting and positioning. Companies identify segments and needs and then focus on fulfilling those needs to effectively satisfy their consumer segment in order to have a unique advantage in the consumers eyes.

(Philip Kotler and Kevin Lane Keller)

Mosaic Plagiarism

Also known as patchwork plagiarism, this is when ideas and phrases are copied from someone else’s work without citation.


Original text:  “Store environment, money availability and credit card availability, time availability influence the impulse buying behaviour but social influence does not have any effect.”

(Nasreen Khan)

“Social networks can play a relevant role in motivating impulse buying behaviour”
(Laura Aragoncillo and Carlos Orús)

Plagiarized: Store environment, money availability, credit card availability, time availability and social networks influence impulse buying behavior but social influence does not have any effect.
The correct way: In previous studies factors like store environment, monetary funds and availability of credit cards have affected impulse buying. (Nasreen Khan) Social networks can also influence impulse buying. (Laura Aragoncillo and Carlos Orús)

Auto Plagiarism

This is when the author reuses their work without acknowledgment.

Example: If I conclude “Employee motivation can vary due to work environment.” in a study about Motivation at workplace and then reuse this in another one of my own studies without accrediting my previous work it would be considered Auto Plagiarism.

Incorrect Citation

It is important to keep track of your references. Incorrect citation  is when you give credit of one author to another. This is mostly unintentional; it can be as simple as mixing up names of two authors or referring to an inauthentic source. However it is crucial to keep track of each reference and check their credibility to avoid any such mistakes.

Example: There is a directional relationship between young customers’ impulse buying behaviors and two visual merchandising techniques: in-store product display and product shelf position.
(Laurent Hubrechts)

Plagiarized: Impulse buying behaviour is related to shelf position and in-store product display.
(Lauren Matt)

The correct way: Impulse buying behaviour is related to shelf position and in-store product display.
(Laurent Hubrechts)

Global Plagiarism

This is when you submit an entire paper written by someone else, hiring others to write for you or submitting another person’s paper is Global Plagiarism.

Example: You get a friend or colleague to do you a favour and write your paper for you. This would be considered Global Plagiarism.
I have had students sitting blank in vivas after doing this particularly so be careful!

How to detect Plagiarism?

In today’s day and age detecting plagiarism is easier. There are different paid and unpaid detectors available to check plagiarism. These detectors compare your work to previous researches and articles to highlight any plagiarized content.
It is recommended to run a plagiarism check before turning your paper in. Most institutions in the UK use Turnitin as a standard plagiarism checker. A  turnitin generated report has text highlighted in red, orange yellow, green and blue colours. Each of these colours have different meanings. Red stands for 75%-100% matching text. Although most institutes use turnitin but here are some other top rated softwares which can also provide quality reports:

  • checked Grammarly
  • checked Unicheck
  • checked Ephorus
  • checked Quetext

Here are some free plagiarism detectors you can use:

  • checked Small SEO tools
  • checked Copyleaks
  • checked Prepostseo
  • checked PaperRater
  • checked DupliChecker

Tips and tricks:
We have learned what plagiarism is, gone through plagiarism examples but how to avoid it? Here’s your answer:

Tips and tricks

DO’s And Don’ts!!



  • checked We learned plagiarism is a serious crime, for which legal actions can be taken.
  • checked We learned that to avoid plagiarism some measures can be taken which include keeping a keen eye on our references, paraphrasing, and adding in our unique ideas.
  • checked We learned how to avoid plagiarism.
  • checked We understood the importance of  a plagiarism detector.
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Meet Dr. Sara Nathan

About Dr. Sara Nathan

I am Dr. Sara Nathan and I have done a Ph.D. in aviation management. I have experience of 10 years in mentoring UK’s Students. Over this decade. I enjoy being able to help researchers all around the world as imparting valuable information has always been my passion. Writing & Reading are my passions. For detail about me and to read my other blog you can visit my profile:

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Steps to write critical literature review for your Dissertation- A complete guide by Dr. Stephen

The second name for the dissertation could be; the ‘nectar of your brain’s creativity’. With that being said, students are likely to doubt their capabilities of carrying out a research. You must have heard that an effective way to do your dissertation is when you study, analyze, and conclude the problem statement of your research. BUT! What goes behind the curtain is always surprising. Students actually pull their hair out and have panic attacks while doing their dissertations.

The dissertation has its five identified chapters which are:

  • checked Introduction and Abstract
  • checked Literature Review
  • checked Methodology
  • checked Data Analysis & Discussion
  • checked Conclusion/Recommendations

Each of the above chapters has its significant importance. But the foremost importance of your dissertation lies in the literature review. It is that element of your research on which your topic will be based upon, and it can get as tough as it could.

What is Literature Review?

A literature review is the critical analysis of the previously researched data on a respective topic”

Literature review is when you are critically reviewing the previously gathered data that compliments your topic the most. From the literature review, you will identify the problem or a gap you are going to research upon, and what would be the basis of your dissertation. The data must be authentic and relevant as it holds a 30% weightage of your whole dissertation.

Why is there a need to write literature review?

“Without writing a literature review, imagine yourself driving on a road with no turns – that’s right! There will be no destination’’

The literature review sets the purpose for your dissertation. A literature review helps you in identifying the aspects that are already found and known. The literature review also enlightens the reader with the critical review of what you have found pertaining to your topic, so far! If you want to know more about its importance, arrange a chit-chat session with a literature review helper and you’ll be amazed at its impact.

A professional guide to write best literature reviews!

With all the warnings and the importance of the literature review, it is time to know about the steps that are more like a staircase to a successful dissertation.

To make it more clear and effortless for you to understand, let me break it down into two parts;

  • checked How would you search for your literature?
  • checked How would you write your literature review?

How you would search for your literature?

It is not as easy as hopping on google and casually searching for dissertation help literature review, it is rather the case where you follow the whole systematic process and searching techniques to delight yourself with the quality of data.

Let’s go through the following steps with the help of an example. Consider that you are doing a dissertation on the following topic;

“Reasons behind the increasing infant mortality rate in Nigeria”


Step1: Go through the relevant data

First thing first, when you search on a topic, make sure the data you get, highly compliments your research. For example, if you are researching the topic above, you would have to study the mortality rate in Nigeria, specifically and not of any other country. You can even search with the relevant keywords. SEARCH IN YOUR DOMAIN! It will help you in sticking to the relevant data.

Step2: Parameters to select the sources

Sources add value to your research. There are few smart ways to judge the authenticity of your sources because if your literature review lacks authenticity, you are back to square one of haunted research. Look at the given ways to judge your resources;

  • checked If you are taking help from the previously done researches, read the abstract first. It will aware you about the importance and originality of that research.
  • checked Skim through the bibliography to judge how up-to-date and relevant the data is.
  • checked Keep track of the citation count on google scholar, the higher the count, the authentic the data is.

Step3: Identify themes, debates and gaps

In this step, you must have the access to the most authentic and relevant data. Now, the question is WHAT COULD BE THE STRATEGY TO STUDY THAT DATA?  The answer is you have to critically read the data, brainstorm yourself, and make a list of pointers to critically evaluate the data.

Example: you are reading a nursing dissertation literature review, because you are researching a medicinal domain, so you have got to keep the eye of an eagle to identify the research gap in the data, which will give you a topic to carry in your research. Jot down the patterns, themes of the data or look at the arguments that support that particular data. This is the step to OBSERVE!

Step4: Give structure to your literature review

This is the step to STRATEGIZE! Now it is time to strategize on what you will emphasize more in your research from the data you have found. By doing so, you will crown the best and suitable structure to your research. There are few techniques to structure your literature review;


When you write your literature in a timely manner, like from older to new, or new to older.


When you want to write your literature review that revolved around specific or several key themes. For example, if you want to give a thematic approach to this research for infant mortality then, you will have to make portions for the country’s health care department, or the trends of family planning, or the cities that have the highest rate among the country and why. You are setting the theme for your research here.


When you decide on what methodology you should have to carry out your research, either it is going to be qualitative, quantitative, or a hybrid methodology that includes both methods. Decide which method choose the best in your research, but a recommended one is always quantitative as numbers are easier to conclude.


Where you are vaguely discussing your arguments to support and oppose certain theories.

Step5: Critical reading and analysis of your ideas

Now that you have brainstormed through your literature, it is time to critically read and analyze those ideas. Trust the doctor, it is easier to find about the grey areas right now than finding it later when you have written down the whole literature review. Preventive measures are better than regret and agonies.

These steps require the ultimate concentration of students, that is why more students lean on to take the help from literature review writing service UK based, and no doubt they do them exceptionally well!

How would you write your literature review?

This will adopt the simple and basic method to write any academic content. It’s the same, old and effective recipe with just some modified research techniques. Your literature review must contain;

literature review


In this section, you will inform the reader about the problem statement of your research. Also, highlight the research gap you have identified. And you know what could be the best way to put forth a great introduction?
It is when you specify how many times this research has been conducted on this topic. It gives a UNIQUE READING POINT to your dissertation. You may discuss the objectives of your research in this section as well.


This is going to be the essence of your literature review. Make sure you use well-structured paragraphs in your main body. For that, set the subheadings for each information like the theme, methodology, the discussion points, or the relevant data from which you identified the research gap.


This is the nectar of your whole take on literature review writing. And if you have made this far without taking any help from the writers of dissertation literature review UK based, trust me you are going to love writing this. In conclusion of your literature review, you are going to highlight your research gap which is the problem statement of your research. And not only this, you will get a chance to express your own opinion – nothing is greater than having the freedom of speech!

DO’s And Don’ts!!


This chart is basically what we had discussed in the whole guide above. Please, keep these in mind if you want to learn about the art of writing a literature review.

Let’s Make A Checklist, Shall We?

  • checked Learned about literature review.
  • checked Learned about its importance.
  • checked Researched on the topic.
  • checked Become known about the steps involved in the research for literature review.
  • checked Become known about the steps to write and frame your literature review.

With a great deal of dedication and good luck to all literature review writers! Trust my experience, with the help of the given guide you can never go wrong with your literature review.


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