How to draft perfect research hypothesis & research Question With Examples

While planning to write your dissertation, you get hit with the thought, “If I am to write my dissertation the very first time, the very first question is what should be my hypothesis? And how it could be perfect?”

Whether you are drafting a dissertation research hypothesis for your Bachelor, MBA or PHD dissertation, the formula is the same – which is a good news, because it means you only have to learn it once and you can use this learning throughout your academic career!

I know you are here for Research Hypothesis Help, so let’s start with the first thing – understanding what a hypothesis really is!

What is a Research Hypothesis?

A research hypothesis, simply put, is a statement that you set out to test when you start your research project.

Any statement that can be tested by a scientific research is called a hypothesis. A hypothesis tests a relationship between two or more variables. If you want to study that relationship, you have to start with a hypothesis.

Hypothesis is the part that your whole research is based on and at the end of your research; you either prove or disprove your hypothesis.

Essential Characteristics of Writing a Good Hypothesis

Now, that you know what a hypothesis is, you should know what makes a good hypothesis

These are the three essentials that must be present in a research hypothesis. And now you should verse yourself with the different types of hypotheses.

Types of Research Hypothesis

Your understanding of hypothesis isn’t complete if you don’t know about these seven types of hypothesis:

Simple Hypothesis

This type of hypothesis makes an assumption about the relationship between a single dependent variable and a single independent variable. Consider this Research Hypothesis Example to better understand a simple hypothesis

Example: Daily consumption of sweet beverages leads to obesity.

Complex Hypothesis

It predicts the relationship between two or more independent and dependent variables.

Two or more independent and dependent variables are involved in a complex hypothesis and it predicts the relationship between them

Example: Higher the IQ, higher the grades of a student, higher will be his chances of success in life.

Directional Hypothesis

Directional hypothesis specifies the direction of the relationship between variables and that direction is determined by theory. The example under the heading of simple hypothesis is also the perfect example of a directional hypothesis.

Non-directional Hypothesis

As the name suggests, a non-directional hypothesis does not predict the nature (or direction) of the relationship between variables.

Example: A student’s learning is influenced by teacher-student relationship.

Associative and Causal Hypothesis

When the variables in your study are interdependent – a change in one variable causes a change in the other, then you have to go for an associative hypothesis.

Example: An increase in the dosage of antibiotics will not lower body temperature.

On the other hand, if the variables in your study have independent – dependent relationship, you have to go for a causal hypothesis.

Example: An increase in petrol prices will cause an increase in the use of public transport.

Null Hypothesis

This hypothesis statement states the lack of relationship between the variables in discussion.

Example: Price has no impact on demand.

Alternative Hypothesis

This hypothesis states that there is a relationship between variables that are being researched on, in a given study. The alternative hypothesis to the above mentioned null hypothesis would be:

Example: Price has an impact on demand.

How to Formulate an Effective Research Hypothesis?

Now, you have pretty much understood the different types of hypotheses, it’s the best time to get practical and learn how to write a hypothesis. It’s easy…

A Good Hypothesis Should Be constructed using the following process:

Ask a question!

Before writing a hypothesis, you must have a question in mind – a question that is specific, focused, clear and researchable within the limitations of your research project. An example of such a question could be: Do students who spend more time studying get better grades?

Now, after asking the question, you look for answers and do some preliminary research, but before that, you must also know what a good research question looks like and how a hypothesis can be formed from it.

Examples of Research Questions:

Consider the following research Question and Hypothesis Examples to understand the concept better

Research Question: What effect does daily use of Facebook have on the attention span of college students?

Now, the hypothesis derived by conducting the preliminary research will look like:

Hypothesis: Daily use of Facebook lowers the attention span of college students.

Here’s another example:

Example:

Research Question: How do white mice and gray mice compare in longevity and intelligence?

Hypothesis: White mice are better in intelligence and longevity than gray mice.

Do some preliminary research!

Your hypothesis will be based on what’s already known about the topic and based on the available literature, your hypothesis will provide the answer to your research question.

That is what your preliminary research is going to be – you will look for theories to form the hypothesis that you are going to test through research. For example; a theory suggests that there is a relationship between two or more variables,

Try to write the hypothesis as an if-then statement!

You can write your hypothesis in the form of a simple if-then statement that predicts the relationship between the variables in your study. The first portion of the statement will state the independent variable and the second portion will state the dependent variable.

Example: If a student starts spending more time studying, his grades will get better.

Define the variables!

You need to have clearly defined dependent and independent variables.

Independent variables by definition are the variables that you tweak or manipulate in order to test their impact on the dependent variable, and they are isolated from the other variables of the study.

Dependent variables are those that are dependent on the other factors – they are effected or impacted by a change in independent variable.

Examples of Independent and Dependent Variables in a Hypothesis:

Example: If price goes up, demand goes down.

Dependent variable: demand
Independent variable: price

Example: Consumption of whole foods leads to better health.

Dependent variable: health
Independent variable: consumption of whole foods

By the way, both these examples have directional hypotheses. But you know that already, right?

Consider your research philosophy

A Hypothesis in Quantitative Research can be tested using statistical tools and quantitative data analysis. While a research with qualitative philosophy is not designed for hypothesis testing and hence the data collected from the qualitative methods cannot be statically tested.

In other words, (to some extent) there is no Hypothesis in Qualitative Research, because the purpose of the research is exploratory.

Importance of a Testable Hypothesis

Scientific research cannot be conducted if your hypothesis is not testable – that is how important it is for a hypothesis to be testable.

Now, the next and the most important question is; what qualifies a hypothesis to be called testable? Here are a few things that make a hypothesis testable.

hypothesis-testable

If your hypothesis meets these conditions, it is testable and you can use it in your research.

Dos and Don’ts of a Research Hypothesis

Before we get to the conclusion, here is a summary of what you have to do and avoid while writing a research hypothesis.

Research Hypothesis-dos-donts

Checklist!

Before you close the tab, share this blog with your friends who might be in need of some Dissertation Hypothesis Help, and let’s see if you got what you came for?

Good luck with your research!

Read more
Podcast

Free presentation slides

If you are a course instructor willing to educate your class or a student who wants to learn then refer to our free presentation slides available for Google slides and Microsoft PowerPoint.

Meet Dr. Sara Nathan

About Dr. Sara Nathan

I am Dr. Sara Nathan and I have done a Ph.D. in aviation management. I have experience of 10 years in mentoring UK’s Students. Over this decade. I enjoy being able to help researchers all around the world as imparting valuable information has always been my passion. Writing & Reading are my passions. For detail about me and to read my other blog you can visit my profile:

My Profile

whatsapp